DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Preface The DGS-3048 Manual is divided into chapters that describe the system installation and operating instructions with examples. Section 1, â€śIntroductionâ€ť â€“ Describes the Switch and its features. Section 2, â€śUnpacking and Setupâ€ť â€“ Helps you get started with the basic installation of the Switch. Section 3, â€śIdentifying External Componentsâ€ť â€“ Describes the front panel, rear panel, side panels, and LED indicators of the Switch. Section 4, â€śConnecting the Switchâ€ť â€“ Tells how you can connect the Switch to your Ethernet/Fast Ethernet network. Section 5, â€śIntroduction to Switch Managementâ€ť â€“ Introduces basic Switch management features, including password protection, SNMP settings, IP address assignment, and connecting devices to the Switch. Section 6, â€śWeb-based Network Managementâ€ť â€“ Talks about connecting and using the Web-based Switch management feature on the Switch. Section 7, â€śConfigurationâ€ť â€“ A detailed discussion about configuring some of the basic functions of the Switch, including accessing the Switch information, using the Switch's utilities and setting up network configurations, such as Quality of Service, Port Mirroring, and configuring the Spanning Tree. Section 8, â€śSecurityâ€ť â€“ Provides a description of the security features of the Switch, including Trusted Host, Secure Socket Layer (SSL), Secure Shell (SSH), and Access Authentication Control. Section 9, â€śManagementâ€ť â€“ A discussion of the management features of the Switch, including User Accounts and SNMP. Section 10, â€śMonitoringâ€ť â€“ Features graphs and windows used in monitoring features and packets on the Switch. Section 11, â€śMaintenanceâ€ť â€“ Features information on Switch utility functions, including TFTP Services, Ping History, Save Changes, Switch History, and Reboot Services. Appendix A, â€śTechnical Specificationsâ€ť â€“ The technical specifications of the DGS-3048. Appendix B, â€śCable Lengthsâ€ť â€“ Information on cable types and maximum distances. Appendix C, â€śGlossaryâ€ť â€“ Lists definitions for terms and acronyms used in this document. Intended Readers
The DGS-3048 Manual contains information for setup and management and of the DGS-3048 Switch. This guide is intended for network managers familiar with network management concepts and terminology. Notes, Notices, and Cautions
NOTE: A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of your device.
NOTICE: A NOTICE indicates either potential damage to hardware or loss of data and tells you how to avoid the problem.
CAUTION: A CAUTION indicates a potential for property damage, personal injury, or death.
vi DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Safety Instructions Use the following safety guidelines to ensure your own personal safety and to help protect your system from potential damage. Throughout this safety section, the caution icon ( ) is used to indicate cautions and precautions that you need to review and follow.
To reduce the risk of bodily injury, electrical shock, fire, and damage to the equipment, observe the following precautions. Observe and follow service markings. Do not service any product except as explained in your system documentation. Opening or removing covers that are marked with the triangular symbol with a lightning bolt may expose you to electrical shock. Only a trained service technician should service components inside these compartments. If any of the following conditions occur, unplug the product from the electrical outlet and replace the part or contact your trained service provider:
â€“ The power cable, extension cable, or plug is damaged. â€“ An object has fallen into the product. â€“ The product has been exposed to water. â€“ The product has been dropped or damaged. â€“ The product does not operate correctly when you follow the operating instructions.
â€˘ Keep your system away from radiators and heat sources. Also, do not block the cooling vents. â€˘ Do not spill food or liquids on your system components, and never operate the product in a wet environment. If the
system gets wet, see the appropriate section in your troubleshooting guide or contact your trained service provider.
â€˘ Do not push any objects into the openings of your system. Doing so can cause a fire or an electric shock by
shorting out interior components.
â€˘ Use the product only with approved equipment. â€˘ Allow the product to cool before removing covers or touching internal components. â€˘ Operate the product only from the type of external power source indicated on the electrical ratings label. If you are
not sure of the type of power source required, consult your service provider or local power company.
â€˘ To help avoid damaging your system, be sure the voltage selection Switch (if provided) on the power supply is set
to match the power available at your location: â€“ 115 volts (V)/60 hertz (Hz) in most of North and South America and some Far Eastern countries such as South
Korea and Taiwan
â€“ 100 V/50 Hz in eastern Japan and 100 V/60 Hz in western Japan â€“ 230 V/50 Hz in most of Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East
â€˘ Also be sure that attached devices are electrically rated to operate with the power available in your location. â€˘ Use only approved power cable(s). If you have not been provided with a power cable for your system or for any
AC-powered option intended for your system, purchase a power cable that is approved for use in your country. The power cable must be rated for the product and for the voltage and current marked on the product's electrical ratings label. The voltage and current rating of the cable should be greater than the ratings marked on the product.
â€˘ To help prevent an electric shock, plug the system and peripheral power cables into properly grounded electrical
outlets. These cables are equipped with three-prong plugs to help ensure proper grounding. Do not use adapter plugs or remove the grounding prong from a cable. If you must use an extension cable, use a 3-wire cable with properly grounded plugs.
â€˘ Observe extension cable and power strip ratings. Make sure that the total ampere rating of all products plugged into
the extension cable or power strip does not exceed 80 percent of the ampere ratings limit for the extension cable or power strip.
To help protect your system from sudden, transient increases and decreases in electrical power, use a surge suppressor, line conditioner, or uninterruptible power supply (UPS).
vii DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
â€˘ Position system cables and power cables carefully; route cables so that they cannot be stepped on or tripped over.
Be sure that nothing rests on any cables.
â€˘ Do not modify power cables or plugs. Consult a licensed electrician or your power company for site modifications.
Always follow your local/national wiring rules.
â€˘ When connecting or disconnecting power to hot-pluggable power supplies, if offered with your system, observe the
following guidelines: â€“ Install the power supply before connecting the power cable to the power supply. â€“ Unplug the power cable before removing the power supply. â€“ If the system has multiple sources of power, disconnect power from the system by unplugging all power cables
from the power supplies.
Move products with care; ensure that all casters and/or stabilizers are firmly connected to the system. Avoid sudden stops and uneven surfaces.
General Precautions for Rack-Mountable Products
Observe the following precautions for rack stability and safety. Also refer to the rack installation documentation accompanying the system and the rack for specific caution statements and procedures. Systems are considered to be components in a rack. Thus, "component" refers to any system as well as to various peripherals or supporting hardware.
CAUTION: Installing systems in a rack without the front and side stabilizers installed could cause the rack to tip over, potentially resulting in bodily injury under certain circumstances. Therefore, always install the
stabilizers before installing components in the rack.
After installing system/components in a rack, never pull more than one
component out of the rack on its slide assemblies at one time. The weight of more than one extended component could cause the rack to tip over and may result in serious injury.
â€˘ Before working on the rack, make sure that the stabilizers are secured to the rack, extended to the floor, and that
the full weight of the rack rests on the floor. Install front and side stabilizers on a single rack or front stabilizers for joined multiple racks before working on the rack.
viii DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Safety Instructions (continued)
Always load the rack from the bottom up, and load the heaviest item in the rack first. Make sure that the rack is level and stable before extending a component from the rack. Use caution when pressing the component rail release latches and sliding a component into or out of a rack; the slide rails can pinch your fingers. After a component is inserted into the rack, carefully extend the rail into a locking position, and then slide the component into the rack. Do not overload the AC supply branch circuit that provides power to the rack. The total rack load should not exceed 80 percent of the branch circuit rating. Ensure that proper airflow is provided to components in the rack. Do not step on or stand on any component when servicing other components in a rack.
NOTE: A qualified electrician must perform all connections to DC power and to safety grounds. All electrical wiring must comply with applicable local or national codes and practices.
CAUTION: Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the equipment in the absence of a suitably installed ground conductor. Contact the appropriate electrical inspection authority or an electrician if you are
uncertain that suitable grounding is available.
CAUTION: The system chassis must be positively grounded to the rack
cabinet frame. Do not attempt to connect power to the system until grounding cables are connected. Completed power and safety ground
wiring must be inspected by a qualified electrical inspector. An energy hazard will exist if the safety ground cable is omitted or disconnected.
ix DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Static electricity can harm delicate components inside your system. To prevent static damage, discharge static electricity from your body before you touch any of the electronic components, such as the microprocessor. You can do so by periodically touching an unpainted metal surface on the chassis. You can also take the following steps to prevent damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD):
1. When unpacking a static-sensitive component from its shipping carton, do not remove the component from the
antistatic packing material until you are ready to install the component in your system. Just before unwrapping the antistatic packaging, be sure to discharge static electricity from your body.
2. When transporting a sensitive component, first place it in an antistatic container or packaging. 3. Handle all sensitive components in a static-safe area. If possible, use antistatic floor pads and workbench pads and
an antistatic grounding strap. Battery Handling Reminder
CAUTION: This is danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer. Discard used batteries according to the manufacturer's
x DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 1 Introduction This section describes the features of the DGS-3048. Features
The DGS-3048 was designed for departmental and enterprise connections. As an all-gigabit-port Switch, it is ideal for backbone and server connection. Powerful and versatile, the Switch eliminates network bottlenecks while giving users the capability to fine-tune performance Switch features include: Ports
â€˘ Forty-eight high performance 1000BASE-T ports for making 10/100/1000 connections to a backbone, end stations,
â€˘ Four mini-GBIC (SFP) combo ports to connect fiber optic media to another Switch, server or network backbone. â€˘ RS-232 DCE Diagnostic port (console port) for setting up and managing the Switch via a connection to a console
terminal or PC using a terminal emulation program. Performance Features
â€˘ Store-and-forward switching scheme. â€˘ Switching fabric: 96Gbps â€˘ Max. Forwarding Rate: 35.7 million packets per second â€˘ High-speed data forwarding rate of 1,488,095 pps per port at 100% of wire-speed for 1000 Mbps speed. â€˘ Supports 8K MAC address. â€˘ Supports four priority queues per port. â€˘ Supports 512Kbytes buffer memory per Switch. â€˘ 802.1D Spanning Tree support. Can be disabled on the entire Switch or on a per-port basis. â€˘ 802.1Q Tagged VLAN support, including GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol). â€˘ Support for up to 255 VLANs. â€˘ IGMP snooping support per Switch. â€˘ Link aggregation support for up to four trunk groups and eight trunk members per group. â€˘ Port-based 802.1x port access control. Management
â€˘ RS-232 console port for out-of-band network management via a console terminal. â€˘ Spanning Tree Algorithm Protocol for creation of alternative backup paths and prevention of network loops,
including Multiple Spanning Tree (MSTP) and Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP).
â€˘ SNMP V.1, V2c1, and V3 network management, four groups of RMON. â€˘ Flash memory for software upgrades. This can be done in-band via TFTP or out-of-band via the console. â€˘ Built-in SNMP management:
â€“ Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
1 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
â€“ MIB-II (RFC 1213) â€“ 802.1P/Q MIB (RFC 2674) â€“ Ethernet-like MIB (RFC 1643) â€“ Private MIB â€“ Mini-RMON MIB (RFC 1757) â€“ four groups. The RMON specification defines the counters for the receive
functions only. However, the DGS-3048 provides counters for both receive and transmit functions.
â€˘ Supports Web-based management. â€˘ TFTP Client support. â€˘ DHCP Client support. â€˘ Password enabled. â€˘ Telnet remote control console. â€˘ Broadcast storm control. â€˘ Multicast storm control. â€˘ Command Line Interface support. â€˘ Syslog support. â€˘ SNTP support. â€˘ SNMP Trap on MAC Notification support. â€˘ Jumbo frame support. â€˘ SSH support. â€˘ SSL support. â€˘ TACACS+/RADIUS support.
2 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 2 Unpacking and Setup This chapter provides unpacking and setup information for the Switch. Packing List
Open the shipping carton of the Switch and carefully unpack its contents. The carton should contain the following items:
â€˘ A DGS-3048 48-Port Gigabit Layer 2 Ethernet Switch â€˘ A mounting kit: 2 mounting brackets and screws â€˘ Four rubber feet with adhesive backing â€˘ One or two AC power cords â€˘ A printed Quick Installation Guide â€˘ D-View 5.1 demo CD-ROM â€˘ This Manual with Registration Card on CD-ROM
If any item is found missing or damaged, please contact your local D-Link reseller for replacement. Installation
Use the following guidelines when choosing a place to install the Switch:
â€˘ The surface must support at least 4 kg. â€˘ The power outlet should be within 1.82 meters (6 feet) of the device. â€˘ Visually inspect the power cord and see that it is secured to the AC power connector. â€˘ Make sure that there is proper heat dissipation from and adequate ventilation around the Switch. Do not place
heavy objects on the Switch. Desktop or Shelf Installation
When installing the Switch on a desktop or shelf, the rubber feet included with the device should first be attached. Attach these cushioning feet on the bottom at each corner of the device. Allow adequate space for ventilation between the device and the objects around it. Figure 2-1 Installing Rubber Feet for Desktop Installation
3 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Rack Installation
The DGS-3048 can be mounted in an EIA standard-sized, 19-inch rack, which can be placed in a wiring closet with other equipment. To install, attach the mounting brackets on the Switchâ€™s side panels (one on each side) and secure them with the screws provided.
Figure 2- 2A. Attaching the Mounting Brackets
Then, use the screws provided with the equipment rack to mount the witch on the rack.
Figure 2- 2B. Installing in an Equipment Rack Power on
The Switch can be used with AC power supply 100-240 VAC, 50 - 60 Hz. The Switchâ€™s power supply will adjust to the local power source automatically and may be powered on without having any or all LAN segment cables connected. After the Switch is plugged in, the LED indicators should respond as follows:
â€˘ All LED indicators except console will momentarily blink. This blinking of the LEDs indicates a reset of the
â€˘ The console LED indicator will blink while the Switch loads onboard software and performs a self-test. When the
POST is passed, the LED will become dark. If the POST fails, the indicator will light solid amber. This indicator lights solid green when the Switch is being logged-in via out-of-band/local console management through the RS- 232 console port using a straight-through serial cable.
4 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Power Failure
As a precaution in the event of a power failure, unplug the Switch. When power is resumed, plug the Switch back in. External Redundant Power System
The Switch supports an external redundant power system.
Figure 2-3. DPS-500 in DPS-900 Case with DGS-3048
Figure 2-4. DPS-500 in DPS-800 Case with DGS-3048
NOTE: See the DPS-500 documentation for more information.
CAUTION: Do not use the Switch with any redundant power system other than the DPS-500.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 3 Identifying External Components This chapter describes the front panel, rear panel, side panels, and LED indicators of the DGS-3048. Front Panel
The front panel of the Switch consists of LED indicators, an RS-232 communication port, 48 1000BASE-T ports, and four mini-GBIC combo ports.
Figure 3-1. Front Panel View
â€˘ An RS-232 DCE console port for setting up and managing the Switch via a connection to a console terminal or PC
using a terminal emulation program.
â€˘ Comprehensive LED indicators display the status of the Switch and the network (see the LED Indicators section
â€˘ Forty-eight 1000BASE-T Ethernet ports for 10/100/1000 connections to a backbone, end stations, and servers. â€˘ Four mini-GBIC combo ports to connect fiber optic media to another Switch, server, core router Switch, or
network backbone. Rear Panel
The rear panel of the Switch contains an external Redundant Power Supply connector and an AC power connector.
Figure 3-2. Rear Panel View
â€˘ The external Redundant Power Supply connector is used to connect the DGS-3048 to a DPS-500. An auto-Switch
circuit automatically switches to an external RPS once the internal power supply fails. Transition from internal to external supply shall not disturb normal operation.
â€˘ The AC power connector is a standard three-pronged connector that supports the power cord. Plug the female
connector of the provided power cord into this socket, and the male side of the cord into a power outlet. Supported input voltages range from 100 ~ 240 VAC at 50 ~ 60 Hz. Side Panels
The right side panel of the Switch contains two system fans (see the top part of the diagram below). The left side panel contains heat vents.
6 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 3-3. Side Panel Views of the Switch
â€˘ The system fans are used to dissipate heat. The sides of the system also provide heat vents to serve the same
purpose. Do not block these openings, and leave at least 6 inches of space at the rear and sides of the Switch for proper ventilation. Be reminded that without proper heat dissipation and air circulation, system components might overheat, which could lead to system failure. LED Indicators
The LED indicators of the Switch include Power, Console, RPS, Speed, and Link/Activity. The following shows the LED indicators for the Switch along with an explanation of each indicator.
Figure 3-4. LED Indicators
â€˘ Power â€“ This indicator on the front panel lights solid green when the system is powered up and remains dark when
the system is not powered on.
â€˘ RPS â€“ This indicator is lit solid amber when the external Redundant Power Supply is in operation and remains
dark when it is not in use or the main power is working normally.
â€˘ Console â€“ This indicator blinks green when the system is booting up. It remains solid green when the system is
operating properly. The LED is solid amber when the POST fails.
7 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 4 Connecting the Switch This chapter describes how to connect the DGS-3048 to your Gigabit Ethernet network. Switch to End Node
End nodes include PCs outfitted with a 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps RJ-45 Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) and most routers. An end node can be connected to the Switch via a Category 3, 4, 5, or 5e UTP/STP cableâ€”for optimal performance, Category 5e is recommended. The end node should be connected to any of the ports of the Switch.
Figure 4-1. Switch Connected to an End Node
The Link/Act LEDs light green when the link is valid. A blinking green LED indicates packet activity on that port. The Speed LEDs indicate port speed and will light solid green for 1000 Mbps connections. They will remain off for 10 or 100 Mbps connections. Switch to Hub or Switch
These connections can be accomplished in a number of ways using a normal cable.
A 10BASE-T hub or Switch can be connected to the Switch via a two-pair Category 3, 4, 5, or 5e UTP/STP cable.
A 100BASE-TX hub or Switch can be connected to the Switch via a two-pair Category 5 or 5e UTP/STP cable.
A 1000BASE-T Switch can be connected to the Switch via four-pair straight Category 5 or 5e UTP/STP cable.
8 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 4-2. Switch Connected to a Normal (non-Uplink) Port on a Hub or Switch Using a Straight or Crossover Cable Switch to Core Router Switch
This connection can be accomplished using the following fiber optic media:
SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-LX Single-mode fiber module (10km)
SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-SX Multi-mode fiber module (550m)
SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-LHX Single-mode fiber module (40km)
SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-ZX Single-mode fiber module (80km) Figure 4-3 Switch Connected by an Optical Fiber Cable to a Core Router Switch, with a Server Connected by Crossover Cable and a PC Connected by a Category 3, 4, 5, or 5e UTP/STP cable
9 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 5 Introduction to Switch Management Management Options
This system may be managed out-of-band through the console port on the front panel or in-band using Telnet. The user may also choose the web-based management, accessible through a web browser. Web-based Management Interface
After you have successfully installed the Switch, you can configure the Switch, monitor the LED panel, and display statistics graphically using a web browser, such as Netscape Navigator (version 6.2 and higher) or MicrosoftÂ® Internet Explorer (version 5.0 and higher). SNMP-Based Management
You can manage the Switch with an SNMP-compatible console program. The Switch supports SNMP version 1.0, version 2.0 and version 3.0. The SNMP agent decodes the incoming SNMP messages and responds to requests with MIB objects stored in the database. The SNMP agent updates the MIB objects to generate statistics and counters. Command Line Console Interface Through the Serial Port
You can also connect a computer or terminal to the serial console port to access the Switch. The command-line-driven interface provides complete access to all Switch management features. Connecting the Console Port (RS-232 DCE)
The Switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a computer or terminal for monitoring and configuring the Switch. This port is a female DB-9 connector, implemented as a data terminal equipment (DTE) connection. To use the console port, you need the following equipment:
A terminal or a computer with both a serial port and the ability to emulate a terminal.
A null modem or crossover RS-232 cable with a female DB-9 connector for the console port on the Switch. To connect a terminal to the console port:
1. Connect the female connector of the RS-232 cable directly to the console port on the Switch, and tighten the
captive retaining screws.
2. Connect the other end of the cable to a terminal or to the serial connector of a computer running terminal emulation
software. Set the terminal emulation software as follows:
3. Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2). 4. Set the data rate to 9600 baud. 5. Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. 6. Set flow control to none. 7. Under Properties, select VT100 for Emulation mode. 8. Select Terminal keys for Function, Arrow, and Ctrl keys. Ensure that you select Terminal keys (not Windows keys).
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
NOTE: When you use HyperTerminal with the MicrosoftÂ® WindowsÂ® 2000 operating system, ensure that you have Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 allows you to use arrow keys in HyperTerminal's VT100 emulation. See www.microsoft.com for
information on Windows 2000 service packs.
9. After you have correctly set up the terminal, plug the power cable into the power receptacle on the back of the
Switch. The boot sequence appears in the terminal.
10. After the boot sequence completes, the console login screen displays. 11. If you have not logged into the command line interface (CLI) program, press the Enter key at the User name and
password prompts. There is no default user name and password for the Switch. User names and passwords must first be created by the administrator. If you have previously set up user accounts, log in and continue to configure the Switch.
12. Enter the commands to complete your desired tasks. Many commands require administrator-level access privileges.
Read the next section for more information on setting up user accounts. See the DGS-3048 Command Line Interface Reference Manual on the documentation CD for a list of all commands and additional information on using the CLI.
13. When you have completed your tasks, exit the session with the logout command or close the emulator program.
Make sure the terminal or PC you are using to make this connection is configured to match these settings. If you are having problems making this connection on a PC, make sure the emulation is set to VT-100. You will be able to set the emulation by clicking on the File menu in you HyperTerminal window, clicking on Properties in the drop-down menu, and then clicking the Settings tab. This is where you will find the Emulation options. If you still do not see anything, try rebooting the Switch by disconnecting its power supply. Once connected to the console, the screen below will appear on your console screen. This is where the user will enter commands to perform all the available management functions. The Switch will prompt the user to enter a username and a password. Upon the initial connection, there is no username or password and therefore just press Enter twice to access the command line interface.
Figure 5-1. Initial Screen after First Connection First Time Connecting to The Switch
The Switch supports user-based security that can allow you to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the Switch or changing its settings. This section tells how to log onto the Switch.
NOTE: The passwords used to access the Switch are case-sensitive; therefore, "S" is not the same as "sâ€ť.
NOTE: Press Ctrl+R to refresh the screen. This command can be used at any time to force the console program in the Switch to refresh the console screen.
Press Enter in both the Username and Password fields. You will be given access to the command prompt DGS-3048:4# shown below: There is no initial username or password. Leave the Username and Password fields blank.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
DGS3048# Figure 5-2. Command Prompt
NOTE: The first user automatically gets Administrator level privileges. It is recommended to create at least one Admin-level user account for the Switch.
The DGS-3048 does not have a default user name and password. One of the first tasks when settings up the Switch is to create user accounts. If you log in using a predefined administrator-level user name, you have privileged access to the Switch's management software. After your initial login, define new passwords for both default user names to prevent unauthorized access to the Switch, and record the passwords for future reference. To create an administrator-level account for the Switch, do the following:
1. At the CLI login prompt, enter create account admin followed by the <user name> and press the Enter key. 2. You will be asked to provide a password. Type the <password> used for the administrator account being created
and press the Enter key.
3. You will be prompted to enter the same password again to verify it. Type the same password and press the Enter
Successful creation of the new administrator account will be verified by a Success message.
NOTE: Passwords are case sensitive. User names and passwords can be up to 15 characters in length.
The sample below illustrates a successful creation of a new administrator-level account with the user name "newmanager".
Enter a case-sensitive new password:******** Enter the new password again for confirmation:********
CAUTION: CLI configuration commands only modify the running
configuration file and are not saved when the Switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in nonvolatile storage, you must use the
save command to copy the running configuration file to the startup configuration.
12 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual SNMP Settings
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI Layer 7 (Application Layer) designed specifically for managing and monitoring network devices. SNMP enables network management stations to read and modify the settings of gateways, routers, switches, and other network devices. Use SNMP to configure system features for proper operation, monitor performance and detect potential problems in the Switch, switch group or network. Managed devices that support SNMP include software (referred to as an agent), which runs locally on the device. A defined set of variables (managed objects) is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB), which provides a standard presentation of the information controlled by the on-board SNMP agent. SNMP defines both the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this information over the network. The DGS-3048 supports SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3. You can specify which version of SNMP you want to use to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of security provided between the management station and the network device. In SNMP v.1 and v.2, user authentication is accomplished using 'community strings', which function like passwords. The remote user SNMP application and the Switch SNMP must use the same community string. SNMP packets from any station that has not been authenticated are ignored (dropped). The default community strings for the Switch used for SNMP v.1 and v.2 management access are:
public - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects.
private - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects.
SNMP v.3 uses a more sophisticated authentication process that is separated into two parts. The first part is to maintain a list of users and their attributes that are allowed to act as SNMP managers. The second part describes what each user on that list can do as an SNMP manager. The Switch allows groups of users to be listed and configured with a shared set of privileges. The SNMP version may also be set for a listed group of SNMP managers. Thus, you may create a group of SNMP managers that are allowed to view read-only information or receive traps using SNMP v.1 while assigning a higher level of security to another group, granting read/write privileges using SNMP v.3. Using SNMP v.3 individual users or groups of SNMP managers can be allowed to perform or be restricted from performing specific SNMP management functions. The functions allowed or restricted are defined using the Object Identifier (OID) associated with a specific MIB. An additional layer of security is available for SNMP v.3 in that SNMP messages may be encrypted. To read more about how to configure SNMP v.3 settings for the Switch read the section entitled Management. Traps
Traps are messages that alert network personnel of events that occur on the Switch. The events can be as serious as a reboot (someone accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or less serious like a port status change. The Switch generates traps and sends them to the trap recipient (or network manager). Typical traps include trap messages for Authentication Failure, Topology Change and Broadcast\Multicast Storm. MIBs
Management and counter information are stored by the Switch in the Management Information Base (MIB). The Switch uses the standard MIB-II Management Information Base module. Consequently, values for MIB objects can be retrieved from any SNMP-based network management software. In addition to the standard MIB-II, the Switch also supports its own proprietary enterprise MIB as an extended Management Information Base. The proprietary MIB may also be retrieved by specifying the MIB Object Identifier. MIB values can be either read-only or read-write. IP Address Assignment
Each Switch must be assigned its own IP Address, which is used for communication with an SNMP network manager or other TCP/IP application (for example TFTP). The Switch's default IP address is 10.90.90.90. You can change the default Switch IP address to meet the specification of your networking address scheme. The Switch is also assigned a unique MAC address by the factory. This MAC address cannot be changed, and can be found by entering the command "show switch" into the command line interface, as shown below.
13 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
DGS3048# show switch Device Type : Ethernet Switch MAC Address : 00:23:46:05:54:00 IP Address : 10.6.22.111 VLAN Name : 1 Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.224 Default Gateway : 10.6.22.97 Boot PROM Version : 1.0.0.02 Firmware Version : 126.96.36.199 Hardware Version : 00.01.00 System Name : ABC System Location : Lab System Contact : Itzik Spanning Tree : Disabled GVRP : Disabled IGMP Snooping : Disabled TELNET : Enabled WEB : Enabled (TCP 80)
DGS3048# Figure 5-3. Show Switch Command
The Switch's MAC address can also be found from the Web management program on the Switch Information (Basic Settings) window on the Configuration menu. The IP address for the Switch must be set before it can be managed with the Web-based manager. The Switch IP address can be automatically set using DHCP protocols, in which case the actual address assigned to the Switch must be known. The IP address may be set using the Command Line Interface (CLI) over the console serial port as follows: Starting at the command line prompt, enter the commands config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy, where the x's represent the IP address to be assigned to the IP interface named System and they represent the corresponding subnet mask. Alternatively, you can enter config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/z. Where the x's represent the IP address to be assigned to the IP interface named System and the z represents the corresponding number of subnets in CIDR notation. The IP interface named System on the Switch can be assigned an IP address and subnet mask that can then be used to connect a management station to the Switch's Telnet or Web-based management agent.
# config ipif system ipaddress 10.53.13.222/8 DGS3048 Success
DGS3048# Figure 5-4. Assigning the Switch an IP Address
In the above example, the Switch was assigned an IP address of 10.24.22.8 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0. The system message Success indicates that the command was executed successfully. Please remember to save your new settings before you logout or they will be lost. The Switch can now be configured and managed via Telnet and the CLI or via the Web-based management.
14 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Connecting Devices to the Switch
After you assign IP addresses to the Switch, you can connect devices to the Switch. To connect a device to an SFP transceiver port:
â€˘ Use your cabling requirements to select an appropriate SFP transceiver type. â€˘ Insert the SFP transceiver (sold separately) into the SFP transceiver slot. â€˘ Use the appropriate network cabling to connect a device to the connectors on the SFP transceiver.
CAUTION: When the SFP transceiver acquires a link, the associated integrated 10/100/1000BASE-T port is disabled.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 6 Web-Based Network Management Introduction
The DGS-3048 offers an embedded Web-based (HTML) interface allowing users to manage the Switch from anywhere on the network through a standard browser, such as Opera, Netscape Navigator/Communicator, or Microsoft Internet Explorer. The Web browser acts as a universal access tool and can communicate directly with the Switch using the HTTP protocol. Your browser window may vary with the screen shots (pictures) in this manual. The Web-based management module and the Console program (and Telnet) are different ways to access the same internal switching software and configure it. Thus, all settings encountered in Web-based management are the same as those found in the console program.
NOTE: This Web-based Management module does not accept Chinese language input (or other languages requiring 2 bytes per character).
NOTE: The Web browser needs to be upgraded to the latest Java version (JavaTM Plug-in: version 1.5.0 or later).
Login to Web Manager
To begin managing your Switch, simply run the browser you have installed on your computer and point it to the IP address you have defined for the device. The URL in the address bar should read something like: http://188.8.131.52, where the numbers 123 represent the IP address of the Switch. Please note that the proxy for session connection should be turned off.
NOTE: The Factory default IP address for the Switch is 10.90.90.90.
In the page that opens, type your user name and password and click OK:
16 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 6-1. Enter Network Password Dialog Box
17 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Web-based User Interface
The user interface provides access to various Switch configuration and management windows, allows you to view performance statistics, and permits you to graphically monitor the system status. Areas of the User Interface
The figure below shows the user interface. The user interface is divided into three distinct areas as described in the table.
Area 3 Area 1
Figure 6-2. Main Web-Manager Window
The following table describes the main 3 areas in the Main Web-Manager window: Area Function Area 1
Select the folder or window to be displayed. The folder icons can be opened to display the hyperlinked menu buttons and subfolders contained within them. Area 2
Presents a graphical near real-time image of the front panel of the Switch. This area displays the Switch's ports and expansion modules, showing port activity, duplex mode, or flow control, depending on the specified mode.
Various areas of the graphic can be selected for performing management functions, including port configuration. Area 3
Presents Switch information based on your selection and the entry of configuration data.
NOTICE: Any changes made to the Switch configuration during the current session must be saved in the Save Configuration window or use the
command line interface (CLI) command save.
18 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
NOTE: Be sure to configure the user name and password in the User Account Management window (Administration â†’ UserAccounts) before connecting the Switch to the greater network.
Figure 6-3. Switch Information (Basic Settings) Window
The following fields can be set: Parameter Description Serial Port Auto
This setting for the restart of the console is 2 Minutes, 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Logout Minutes, or Never. The default is 10 Minutes. Serial Port Baud
Determines the serial port bit rate that will be used the next time the Switch is restarted. Rate
Available speeds are 9600, 19,200, 38,400, and 115,200 bits per second. The default setting is 9600. MAC Address Aging
This field specifies the length of time a learned MAC Address will remain in the Time (0-10) Minutes
forwarding table without being accessed (that is, how long a learned MAC Address is allowed to remain idle). To change this, type in a different value representing the MAC address age-out time in seconds. TheMAC Address Aging Time can be set to any value between 1 and 10. The default setting is 5. IGMP Snooping
This indicates if Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Snooping is enabled on the Switch. When enabled, this feature instructs the Switch to read IGMP packets being forwarded through the Switch in order to obtain forwarding information from them (learn which ports contain Multicast members). The Switchâ€™s IGMP snooping state can be changed on the IGMP Snooping Settings window (L2 Features â†’ IGMP Snooping â†’ IGMP Snooping Setting). The default is Disabled. Multicast Router
This field enables or disables the multicast router. The default is disabled. Only GVRP
This indicates if Group VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) is enabled on the Switch. GVRP is a protocol that allows members to dynamically join VLANs. The Switchâ€™s GVRP settings can be changed on the GVRP Settings window (L2 Features â†’ VLAN â†’ GVRP Settings)The default is Disabled.
19 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
The Switchâ€™s 802.1x function may be enabled by port; the default is Disabled. This field must be enabled to view and configure certain windows for 802.1x. More information regarding 802.1x, its functions and implementation can be found later in this section, under the Security â†’ 802.1x folder. Port-Based 802.1x specifies that ports configured for 802.1x are initialized based on the port number only and are subject to any authorization parameters configured. Syslog State
This allows you to enable or disable the System Log State. The default is enabled.
20 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 7 Administration The first Web Manager main folder is Administration and includes the following windows and sub-folders: IP Address, Switch Information, Advanced Settings, Port Configuration, Port Mirroring, Link Aggregation, IGMP Snooping, Spanning Tree, Forwarding & Filtering, VLANs, SNTP Settings, QoS, MAC Notification, System Log Server, Port Access Entity, and Static ARP Settings, as well as secondary windows. Switch Information
Figure 7- 1. Switch Information (Basic Settings) W indow
This window is used to enter name, location, and contact information. Click Apply to activate the new settings. The information is described as follows: Parameter Description Device Type
A description of the Switch type. MAC Address
The Ethernet address for the device. Also known as the physical address. Boot PROM Version
Version number for the firmware chip. This information is needed for new runtime software downloads. Firmware Version
Version number of the firmware installed on the Switch. This can be updated by using the TFTP Services window in the Administration folder (Administration â†’ TFTP Services â†’). Hardware Version
Version of the Switch hardware. System Name
Defines the user-defined device name. The field range is 0-160 characters. System Location
Systemâ€™s location. System Contact
Name of the person to contact should there be any problems or questions with the
21 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description system. You may also want to include a phone number or extension.
Figure 7-2. Switch IP Settings Window
This window is used to determine whether the Switch should get its IP Address settings from the user (Manual), a DHCP server. If you are not using DHCP, enter the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway of the Switch. If you enable DHCP, a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol request will be sent when the Switch is powered up. Once you have selected a setting under Get IP From, click Apply to activate the new settings. The information is described as follows: Parameter Description Get IP From
There are two choices for how the Switch receives its IP Address settings: Manual and DHCP. IP Address
The host address for the device on the TCP/IP network. Subnet Mask
The address mask that controls subnetting on your TCP/IP network. Default Gateway
The IP address of the deviceâ€”usually a routerâ€”that handles connections to other subnets and/or other TCP/IP networks. Management VLAN
Name of Management VLAN Name
22 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Port Configuration Port Settings
Port settings can be done in the following window. To open the Port Configuration Window click on the Port Configuration folder and choose the Port Settings link.
Figure 7- 3. Port Configuration Window To configure Switch ports:
1. Choose the port or sequential range of ports using the From and To pull-down menus. 2. Use the remaining pull-down menus to configure the parameters described below:
23 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description From/To
These two fields allow you to specify the range of ports included in the description State<Enabled>
Toggle the State field to either enable or disable a given port or group of ports. Speed/Duplex<Auto>Toggle the Speed/Duplexfield to either select the speed and duplex/half-duplex state
of the port. Auto denotes auto-negotiation between 10 and 100 Mbps devices, in full- or half-duplex. The Auto setting allows the port to automatically determine the fastest settings the device the port is connected to can handle, and then to use those settings. The other options are 10M/Half, 10M/Full,100M/Half and 100M/Full, 1000M/Full. There is no automatic adjustment of port settings with any option other than Auto.
Gigabit connections are only supported in full duplex connections (1000M/Full) and take on certain characteristics that are different from the other choices listed.
The 1000M/Full parameters refer to connections running a 1000BASE-T cable for connection between the Switch port and other device capable of a gigabit connection. Flow Control
Displays the flow control scheme used for the various port configurations. Ports configured for full-duplex use 802.3x flow control, half-duplex ports use backpressure flow control, and Auto ports use an automatic selection of the two. The default is Disabled. Learning
Enable or disable MAC address learning for the selected ports. When Enabled, destination and source MAC addresses are automatically listed in the forwarding table. When learning is Disabled, MAC addresses must be manually entered into the forwarding table. This is sometimes done for security or efficiency reasons. See the section on Forwarding for information on entering MAC addresses into the forwarding table. The default setting is Enabled.
Click Apply to implement the new settings on the Switch.
24 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Port Description
Port settings are presented in following window. To open the Port Description Window click on the Port Configuration folder and choose the Port Description link.
Figure 7- 4. Port Description Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description From/To
These two fields allow you to specify the range of ports included in the description Description
Text description of the port
The Switch allows you to set up and manage user accounts by using the following windows.
25 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 5. User Account Management Window
The information on the window is described as follows: Parameter Description User Name
Displays all current users for the Switch. Access Right
Displays the current access level assigned to each corresponding user. There are two access levels: User and Admin. Admin has full read/write access, while a User has read-only access.
To add a user account press on the Add button:
Figure 7- 6. User Account Modify Table Window (Add)
Fill in the appropriate information in the Username, NewPassword, and Confirm New Password fields. Then select the desired access, Admin or User, in the Access Right drop-down menu and click Apply. The information on the window is described as follows:
Parameter Description User Name
Enter a user name in this field. New Password
Enter the desired new password in this field. Confirm New
Enter the new password a second time. Password Access Right
Displays the current access level assigned to each corresponding user. There are two access levels: Admin and User. An Admin user has full read/write access, while a User has read-only access.
To modify a user account press on the â€śModifyâ€ť button in the user account window.
26 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 7. User Account Modify Table Window (Edit)
To edit a User Account, fill in the appropriate information in the Old Password, NewPassword, and Confirm New Password fields. Click Apply to make your change take effect. The information on the window is described as follows:
Parameter Description User Name
The user name being edited. Old Password
Enter the last password used in this field. New Password
Enter the desired new password in this field. Confirm New
Enter the new password a second time. Password Access Right
Displays the current access level assigned to each corresponding user. There are two access levels: User and Admin. Admin has full read/write access, while a User has read-only access Admin and User Privileges
There are two levels of user privileges, Admin and User. Some menu selections available to users with Admin privileges may not be available to those with User privileges. The following table summarizes the Admin and User privileges:
Management Admin User
Community Strings and Trap Stations
Update Firmware and Configuration
27 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Management Admin User User Account Management
Add/Update/Delete User Accounts
View User Accounts
No Table 7-1. Admin and User Privileges
After establishing a User Account with Admin-level privileges, be sure to save the changes at the Save Changes page. Port Mirroring
Port mirroring monitors and mirrors network traffic by forwarding copies of incoming and outgoing packets from a monitored port to a monitoring port. Users specify which target port receives copies of all traffic passing through a specified source port. .
Figure 7- 8. Setup Port Mirroring Window To configure a mirror port:
1. Select theSource Port from where you want to copy frames and the Target Port, which receives the copies from the
2. Select Ingress, Egress, or None and change the Status drop-down menu to Enabled. 3. Click Apply to let the changes take effect.
NOTE: You cannot mirror a fast port onto a slower port. For example, if you try to mirror the traffic from a 100 Mbps port onto a 10 Mbps port, this can cause throughput problems. The port you are copying frames from should always support an equal or lower speed than the port to which you
are sending the copies. Also, the target port for the mirroring cannot be a
member of a trunk group. Please note a target port and a source port
28 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
cannot be the same port. System Log Settings
The Switch can send Syslog messages to up to four designated servers using the System Log Server. In the Administration folder, click System Log Settings, to view the window shown below.
Figure 7- 9. System Log Servers Window
The parameters configured for adding and editing System Log Server settings are the same. To add a new Syslog Server, click the Add button. To modify a current entry, click the hyperlinked number of the server in the Index field. Both actions will result in the same window to configure. See the table below for a description of the parameters in the following window.
Figure 7- 10. System Log Server â€“ Add Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Index
Syslog server settings index. Server IP
The IP address of the Syslog server. Severity
This drop-down menu allows you to select the level of messages that will be sent. The options are Warning, Informational, and ALL. Facility
Some of the operating system daemons and processes have been assigned Facility values. Processes and daemons that have not been explicitly assigned a Facility may use any of the "local use" facilities or they may use the "user-level" Facility. Those Facilities that have been designated are shown in the following. Bold font denotes the facility values that the Switch currently implements.
29 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description 0 kernel messages
1 user-level messages
2 mail system
3 system daemons
4 security/authorization messages
5 messages generated internally by Syslog line printer subsystem
7 network news subsystem
8 UUCP subsystem
9 clock daemon
10 security/authorization messages
11 FTP daemon
12 NTP subsystem
13 log audit
14 log alert
15 clock daemon 16 local use 0 (local0) 17 local use 1 (local1) 18 local use 2 (local2) 19 local use 3 (local3) 20 local use 4 (local4) 21 local use 5 (local5) 22 local use 6 (local6) 23 local use 7 (local7) UDP Port
Enter the UDP port number used for sending Syslog messages. The default is 514.
To set the System Log Server configuration, click Apply. To delete an entry from the System Log Servers window, click
under the Delete heading of the entry to delete. To return to the System Log Servers window, click
the Show All System Log Servers link. SNTP Settings Time Setting
To configure the time settings for the Switch, open the Administration folder, then the SNTP Settings folder and click on the Time Setting link, revealing the following window for the user to configure.
30 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 11. Current Time: Status Window
The following parameters can be set or are displayed: Parameter Description Current Time: Status Current Time
Displays the time when the Switch was initially started for this session. Time Source
Displays the time source for the system.
Current Time: SNTP Settings SNTP State
Use this pull-down menu to Enabled or Disabled SNTP. SNTP Primary Server
This is the IP address of the primary server the SNTP information will be taken from. SNTP Secondary
This is the IP address of the secondary server the SNTP information will be taken from. Server SNTP Poll Interval in
This is the interval, in seconds, between requests for updated SNTP information. Seconds
Current Time: Set Current Time
31 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Year
Enter the current year, if you want to update the system clock. Month
Enter the current month, if you would like to update the system clock. Day
Enter the current day, if you would like to update the system clock. Time in HH MM SS
Enter the current time in hours and minutes, if you would like to update the system clock.
Click Apply to implement your changes. Time Zone and DST
The following are windows used to configure time zones and Daylight Savings time settings for SNTP. Open the Administration folder, then the SNTP Setting folder and click on the Time Zone and DST link, revealing the following window.
32 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 12. Time Zone and DST Settings Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Time Zone and DST Settings Daylight Saving
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable the DST Settings. Time State Daylight Saving
Use this pull-down menu to specify the amount of time that will constitute your local Time Offset in
DST offset - 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes. Minutes Time Zone Offset
Use these pull-down menus to specify your local time zone's offset from Greenwich from GMT in +/-
33 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description HH:MM
Mean Time (GMT.) DST Repeating Settings - Using repeating mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Repeating mode requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified using a formula. For example, specify to begin DST on Saturday during the second week of April and end DST on Sunday during the last week of October. From Which Week
Enter the week of the month that DST will start. of the month From Which Day of
Enter the day of the week that DST will start on. the Week From Which Month
Enter the month DST will start on. From What Time HH Enter the time of day that DST will start on. MM To Which Week
Enter the week of the month the DST will end. To Which Day
Enter the day of the week that DST will end. To Which Month
Enter the month that DST will end. To What Time HH
Enter the time DST will end. MM DST Annual Settings - Using annual mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Annual mode requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified concisely. For example, specify to begin DST on April 3 and end DST on October 14. From What Month
Enter the month DST will start on, each year. From What Date
Enter the day of the week DST will start on, each year. From What Year
Enter the year DST will start. From What Time
Enter the time of day DST will start on, each year. To What Month
Enter the month DST will end on, each year. To What Date
Enter the day of the week DST will end on, each year. To What Year
Enter the year of the week DST will end. To What Time
Enter the time of day that DST will end on, each year.
Click Apply to implement changes made to the Time Zone and DST Settings window. The DGS-3048 supports 802.1p priority queuing Quality of Service. The following section discusses the implementation of QoS (Quality of Service) and benefits of using 802.1p priority queuing. TFTP Services
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) services allow the Switch's firmware to be upgraded by transferring a new firmware file from a TFTP server to the Switch. A configuration file can also be loaded into the Switch from a TFTP server. Switch settings can be saved to the TFTP server, and a history log can be uploaded from the Switch to the TFTP server.
34 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Download Firmware
To update the Switch's firmware, click on the TFTP Services link in the Administration folder:
Figure 7- 13. TFTP Services Window
To download firmware, configure the following fields and click Start. Parameter Description Active
Select the activity type Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the server from which you wish to download firmware. File Name
Specify the path and filename of the firmware on the Server.
35 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual SNMP Manager
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI Layer 7 (Application Layer) designed specifically for managing and monitoring network devices. SNMP enables network management stations to read and modify the settings of gateways, routers, Switches, and other network devices. Use SNMP to configure system features for proper operation, monitor performance and detect potential problems in the Switch, Switch group or network. Managed devices that support SNMP include software (referred to as an agent), which runs locally on the device. A defined set of variables (managed objects) is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB), which provides a standard presentation of the information controlled by the on-board SNMP agent. SNMP defines both the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this information over the network. The DGS-3048 supports the SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3. You can specify which version of the SNMP you want to use to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of security provided between the management station and the network device. In SNMP v.1 and v.2, user authentication is accomplished using 'community strings', which function like passwords. The remote user SNMP application and the Switch SNMP must use the same community string. SNMP packets from any station that has not been authenticated are ignored (dropped). The default community strings for the Switch used for SNMP v.1 and v.2 management access are:
â€˘ public - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects. â€˘ private - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects.
SNMPv3 uses a more sophisticated authentication process that is separated into two parts. The first part is to maintain a list of users and their attributes that are allowed to act as SNMP managers. The second part describes what each user on that list can do as an SNMP manager. The Switch allows groups of users to be listed and configured with a shared set of privileges. The SNMP version may also be set for a listed group of SNMP managers. Thus, you may create a group of SNMP managers that are allowed to view read-only information or receive traps using SNMPv1 while assigning a higher level of security to another group, granting read/write privileges using SNMPv3. Using SNMPv3 individual users or groups of SNMP managers can be allowed to perform or be restricted from performing specific SNMP management functions. The functions allowed or restricted are defined using the Object Identifier (OID) associated with a specific MIB. An additional layer of security is available for SNMPv3 in that SNMP messages may be encrypted. To read more about how to configure SNMPv3 settings for the Switch read the next section. SNMP View Table
The SNMP View Table is used to assign views to community strings that define which MIB objects can be accessed by a remote SNMP manager. To view the SNMP View Table window, open the SNMP Manager folder under Administration and click the SNMP View Table entry. The following window should appear:
Figure 7- 14. SNMP View Table Window
To delete an existing SNMP View Table entry, click the
in the Delete column corresponding to the entry you wish to
delete. To create a new entry, click the Add button and a separate window will appear.
36 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 15. SNMP View Table Configuration Window
The SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table) to the views created in the previous window. The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the new SNMP view being created. Subtree OID
Type the Object Identifier (OID) Subtree for the view. The OID identifies an object tree (MIB tree) that will be included or excluded from access by an SNMP manager. View Type
Select Included to include this object in the list of objects that an SNMP manager can access. Select Excluded to exclude this object from the list of objects that an SNMP manager can access.
To implement your new settings, click Apply. To return to the SNMP View Table, click the Show All SNMP View Table Entries link. SNMP Group Table
An SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table) to the views created in the previous menu. To view the SNMP Group Table window, open the SNMP Manager folder in the Administration folder and click the SNMP Group Table entry. The following window should appear:
Figure 7- 16. SNMP Group Table Window
To delete an existing SNMP Group Table entry, click the corresponding
under the Delete heading.
To display the current settings for an existing SNMP Group Table entry, click the hyperlink for the entry under the Group Name. To add a new entry to the Switch's SNMP Group Table, click the Add button in the upper left-hand corner of the SNMP Group Table window. This will open the SNMP Group Table Configuration window, as shown below.
37 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 17. SNMP Group Table Configuration Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Group Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the new SNMP group of SNMP users. Read View Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages. Write View Name
Specify a SNMP group name for users that are allowed SNMP write privileges to the Switch's SNMP agent. Notify View Name
Specify a SNMP group name for users that can receive SNMP trap messages generated by the Switch's SNMP agent. Security Model SNMPv1 â€“ Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used. SNMPv2 â€“ Specifies that SNMP version 2c will be used. The SNMPv2 supports both centralized and distributed network management strategies. It includes improvements in the Structure of Management Information (SMI) and adds some security features. SNMPv3 â€“ Specifies that the SNMP version 3 will be used. SNMPv3 provides secure access to devices through a combination of authentication and encrypting packets over the network. Security Level
The Security Level settings only apply to SNMPv3. NoAuthNoPriv - Specifies that there will be no authorization and no encryption of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manager. AuthNoPriv - Specifies that authorization will be required, but there will be no encryption of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manager. AuthPriv - Specifies that authorization will be required, and that packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manger will be encrypted.
To implement your new settings, click Apply. To return to the SNMP Group Table, click the Show All SNMP Group Table Entries link. SNMP User Table
Use the SNMP User Table window to create a new SNMP user and add the user to an existing SNMP group or to a newly created group.
38 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 18. SNMP User Table Window
To delete an existing entry, click the Delete icon in the right-hand column that corresponds to the port you want to remove. To create a new entry, click the Add button, a separate window will appear.
Figure 7- 19. SNMP User Table Configuration Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description User Name
Enter an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the SNMP user. Group Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages. SNMP V3 Encryption
Check to use encryption. Auth-Protocol
You need to check â€śencryptedâ€ť in SNMP V3 Encryption in order to configure Auth- Protocol MD5 - Specifies that the HMAC-MD5-96 authentication level will be used. This field is only operable when the Encryption field has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password. SHA - Specifies that the HMAC-SHA authentication protocol will be used. This field is only operable when the Encryption field has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password.
To implement changes made, click Apply. To return to the SNMP User Table, click the Show All SNMP User Table Entries link. To display a user table click on a user name in the User Name column. The SNMP User Table Display window appears.
39 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 7- 20. SNMP User Table Display Window
SNMP Community Table
Use this table to create an SNMP community string to define the relationship between the SNMP manager and an agent. The community string acts like a password to permit access to the agent on the Switch. One or more of the following characteristics can be associated with the community string:
â€˘ An Access List of IP addresses of SNMP managers that are permitted to use the community string to gain access to
the Switch's SNMP agent.
â€˘ Any MIB view that defines the subset of all MIB objects will be accessible to the SNMP community. â€˘ Read/write or read-only level permission for the MIB objects accessible to the SNMP community.
To configure SNMP Community entries, open the SNMP Manager folder, located in the Administration folder, and click the SNMP Community Table link, which will open the following window:
To create a new entry, click the Add button, a separate window will appear.
Figure 7- 21. SNMP Community Table Configuration Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Community Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify members of an SNMP community. This string is used like a password to give remote SNMP managers access to MIB objects in the Switch's SNMP agent.
40 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify the group of MIB objects that a remote SNMP manager is allowed to access on the Switch. The view name must exist in the SNMP View Table. Access Right Read Only â€“ Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string created can only read the contents of the MIBs on the Switch. Read Write â€“ Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string created can read from, and write to the contents of the MIBs on the Switch.
To add a new entry to the SNMP Community Table, the following, the following parameters can be set:
Parameter Description Community Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify members of an SNMP community. This string is used like a password to give remote SNMP managers access to MIB objects in the Switch's SNMP agent. View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify the group of MIB objects that a remote SNMP manager is allowed to access on the Switch. The view name must exist in the SNMP View Table. Access Right Read Only â€“ Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string created can only read the contents of the MIBs on the Switch. Read Write â€“ Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string created can read from, and write to the contents of the MIBs on the Switch. SNMP Host Table
Use the SNMP Host Table window to set up SNMP trap recipients. Open the SNMP Manager folder, located in the Administration folder and click on the SNMP Host Table link. This will open the SNMP Host Table window, as shown below. To delete an existing SNMP Host Tableentry, click the corresponding under the Deleteheading. To display the current settings for an existing SNMP Group Table entry, click the blue link for the entry under the Host IP Addressheading.
Figure 7- 22. SNMP Host Table Window
To add a new entry to the Switch's SNMP Host Table, click the Add button in the upper left-hand corner of the window. This will open the SNMP Host Table Configuration window, as shown below.
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Figure7- 23. SNMP Host Table Configuration Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Host IP Address
Type the IP address of the remote management station that will serve as the SNMP host for the Switch. SNMP Version V1 - To specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used. V2 - To specify that SNMP version 2 will be used. V3-NoAuth-NoPriv - To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a NoAuth- NoPriv security level. V3-Auth-NoPriv - To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a Auth-NoPriv security level. V3-Auth-Priv - To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a Auth-Priv security level. Community String or Type in the community string or SNMP V3 user name as appropriate. SNMP V3 User Name
To implement your new settings, click Apply. To return to the SNMP Host Table, click the Show All SNMP Host Table Entries link. SNMP Engine ID
The Engine ID is a unique identifier used for SNMP V3 implementations. This is an alphanumeric string used to identify the SNMP engine on the Switch. To display the Switch's SNMP Engine ID, open the SNMP Manager folder, located in the Administration folder and click on the SNMP Engine ID link. This will open the SNMP Engine ID Configuration window, as shown below.
Figure 7- 24. SNMP Engine ID Configuration Window
To change the Engine ID, type the new Engine ID in the space provided and click the Apply button.
SNMP Trap Configuration
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The Trap configuration window enables/ disables SNMP Trap generation. It is possible to enable SNMP Trap during authentication.
Figure 7- 25. SNMP Trap Configuration window
To change the SNMP Trap Configuration, select the desired options and click the Apply button.
43 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 8 L2 Features VLANs Understanding IEEE 802.1p Priority
Priority tagging is a function defined by the IEEE 802.1p standard designed to provide a means of managing traffic on a network where many different types of data may be transmitted simultaneously. It is intended to alleviate problems associated with the delivery of time critical data over congested networks. The quality of applications that are dependent on such time critical data, such as video conferencing, can be severely and adversely affected by even very small delays in transmission. Network devices that are in compliance with the IEEE 802.1p standard have the ability to recognize the priority level of data packets. These devices can also assign a priority label or tag to packets. Compliant devices can also strip priority tags from packets. This priority tag determines the packet's degree of expeditiousness and determines the queue to which it will be assigned. Priority tags are given values from 0 to 7 with 0 being assigned to the lowest priority data and 7 assigned to the highest. The highest priority tag 7 is generally only used for data associated with video or audio applications, which are sensitive to even slight delays, or for data from specified end users whose data transmissions warrant special consideration. The Switch allows you to further tailor how priority tagged data packets are handled on your network. Using queues to manage priority tagged data allows you to specify its relative priority to suit the needs of your network. There may be circumstances where it would be advantageous to group two or more differently tagged packets into the same queue. Generally, however, it is recommended that the highest priority queue, Queue 1, be reserved for data packets with a priority value of 7. Packets that have not been given any priority value are placed in Queue 0 and thus given the lowest priority for delivery. A weighted round robin system is employed on the Switch to determine the rate at which the queues are emptied of packets. The ratio used for clearing the queues is 4:1. This means that the highest priority queue, Queue 1, will clear 4 packets for every 1 packet cleared from Queue 0. Remember, the priority queue settings on the Switch are for all ports, and all devices connected to the Switch will be affected. This priority queuing system will be especially beneficial if your network employs Switches with the capability of assigning priority tags. VLAN Description
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a network topology configured according to a logical scheme rather than the physical layout. VLANs can be used to combine any collection of LAN segments into an autonomous user group that appears as a single LAN. VLANs also logically segment the network into different broadcast domains so that packets are forwarded only between ports within the VLAN. Typically, a VLAN corresponds to a particular subnet, although not nec- essarily. VLANs can enhance performance by conserving bandwidth, and improve security by limiting traffic to specific domains. A VLAN is a collection of end nodes grouped by logic instead of physical location. End nodes that frequently communicate with each other are assigned to the same VLAN, regardless of where they are physically on the network. Logically, a VLAN can be equated to a broadcast domain, because broadcast packets are forwarded to only members of the VLAN on which the broadcast was initiated. Notes About VLANs on the DGS-3048
No matter what basis is used to uniquely identify end nodes and assign these nodes VLAN membership, packets cannot cross VLANs without a network device performing a routing function between the VLANs.
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The DGS-3048 supports IEEE 802.1Q VLANs. The port untagging function can be used to remove the 802.1Q tag from packet headers to maintain compatibility with devices that are tag-unaware. The Switch's default is to assign all ports to a single 802.1Q VLAN named "default." The "default" VLAN has a VID = 1. IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Some relevant terms:
â€˘ Tagging â€“ The act of putting 802.1Q VLAN information into the header of a packet. â€˘ Untagging â€“ The act of stripping 802.1Q VLAN information out of the packet header. â€˘ Ingress port â€“ A port on a Switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be made. â€˘ Egress port â€“ A port on a Switch where packets are flowing out of the Switch, either to another Switch or to an
end station, and tagging decisions must be made.
IEEE 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs are implemented on the Switch. 802.1Q VLANs require tagging, which enables them to span the entire network (assuming all Switches on the network are IEEE 802.1Q-compliant). VLANs allow a network to be segmented in order to reduce the size of broadcast domains. All packets entering a VLAN will only be forwarded to the stations (over IEEE 802.1Q enabled Switches) that are members of that VLAN, and this includes broadcast, multicast and unicast packets from unknown sources. VLANs can also provide a level of security to your network. IEEE 802.1Q VLANs will only deliver packets between stations that are members of the VLAN. Any port can be configured as either tagging or untagging. The untagging feature of IEEE 802.1Q VLANs allows VLANs to work with legacy Switches that don't recognize VLAN tags in packet headers. The tagging feature allows VLANs to span multiple 802.1Q-compliant Switches through a single physical connection and allows Spanning Tree to be enabled on all ports and work normally. The IEEE 802.1Q standard restricts the forwarding of untagged packets to the VLAN the receiving port is a member of. The main characteristics of IEEE 802.1Q are as follows:
â€˘ Assigns packets to VLANs by filtering. â€˘ Assumes the presence of a single global spanning tree. â€˘ Uses an explicit tagging scheme with one-level tagging. â€˘ 802.1Q VLAN Packet Forwarding
Packet forwarding decisions are made based upon the following three types of rules:
â€˘ Ingress rules - rules relevant to the classification of received frames belonging to a VLAN. â€˘ Forwarding rules between ports - decides whether to filter or forward the packet. â€˘ Egress rules - determines if the packet must be sent tagged or untagged.
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Figure 8- 1. IEEE 802.1Q Packet Forwarding
802.1Q VLAN Tags
The figure below shows the 802.1Q VLAN tag. There are four additional octets inserted after the source MAC address. Their presence is indicated by a value of 0x8100 in the EtherType field. When a packet's EtherType field is equal to 0x8100, the packet carries the IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p tag. The tag is contained in the following two octets and consists of 3 bits of user priority, 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier (CFI - used for encapsulating Token Ring packets so they can be carried across Ethernet backbones), and 12 bits of VLAN ID (VID). The 3 bits of user priority are used by 802.1p. The VID is the VLAN identifier and is used by the 802.1Q standard. Because the VID is 12 bits long, 4094 unique VLANs can be identified. The tag is inserted into the packet header making the entire packet longer by 4 octets. All of the information originally contained in the packet is retained.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 8- 2. IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The EtherType and VLAN ID are inserted after the MAC source address, but before the original EtherType/Length or Logical Link Control. Because the packet is now a bit longer than it was originally, the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) must be recalculated.
Figure 8- 3. Adding an IEEE 802.1Q Tag
47 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Port VLAN ID
Packets that are tagged (are carrying the 802.1Q VID information) can be transmitted from one 802.1Q compliant network device to another with the VLAN information intact. This allows 802.1Q VLANs to span network devices (and indeed, the entire network, if all network devices are 802.1Q compliant). Unfortunately, not all network devices are 802.1Q compliant. These devices are referred to as tag-unaware. 802.1Q devices are referred to as tag-aware. Prior to the adoption of 802.1Q VLANs, port-based and MAC-based VLANs were in common use. These VLANs relied upon a Port VLAN ID (PVID) to forward packets. A packet received on a given port would be assigned that port's PVID and then be forwarded to the port that corresponded to the packet's destination address (found in the Switch's forwarding table). If the PVID of the port that received the packet is different from the PVID of the port that is to transmit the packet, the Switch will drop the packet. Within the Switch, different PVIDs mean different VLANs (remember that two VLANs cannot communicate without an external router). So, VLAN identification based upon the PVIDs cannot create VLANs that extend outside a given Switch (or Switch stack). Every physical port on a Switch has a PVID. 802.1Q ports are also assigned a PVID, for use within the Switch. If no VLANs are defined on the Switch, all ports are then assigned to a default VLAN with a PVID equal to 1. Untagged packets are assigned the PVID of the port on which they were received. Forwarding decisions are based upon this PVID, in so far as VLANs are concerned. Tagged packets are forwarded according to the VID contained within the tag. Tagged packets are also assigned a PVID, but the PVID is not used to make packet forwarding decisions, the VID is. Tag-aware Switches must keep a table to relate PVIDs within the Switch to VIDs on the network. The Switch will compare the VID of a packet to be transmitted to the VID of the port that is to transmit the packet. If the two VIDs are different, the Switch will drop the packet. Because of the existence of the PVID for untagged packets and the VID for tagged packets, tag-aware and tag-unaware network devices can coexist on the same network. A Switch port can have only one PVID, but can have as many VIDs as the Switch has memory in its VLAN table to store them. Because some devices on a network may be tag-unaware, a decision must be made at each port on a tag-aware device before packets are transmitted - should the packet to be transmitted have a tag or not? If the transmitting port is connected to a tag- unaware device, the packet should be untagged. If the transmitting port is connected to a tag-aware device, the packet should be tagged. Tagging and Untagging
Every port on an 802.1Q compliant Switch can be configured as tagging or untagging. Ports with tagging enabled will put the VID number, priority and other VLAN information into the header of all packets that flow into and out of it. If a packet has previously been tagged, the port will not alter the packet, thus keeping the VLAN information intact. The VLAN information in the tag can then be used by other 802.1Q compliant devices on the network to make packet-forwarding decisions. Ports with untagging enabled will strip the 802.1Q tag from all packets that flow into and out of those ports. If the packet doesn't have an 802.1Q VLAN tag, the port will not alter the packet. Thus, all packets received by and forwarded by an untagging port will have no 802.1Q VLAN information. (Remember that the PVID is only used internally within the Switch). Untagging is used to send packets from an 802.1Q-compliant network device to a non-compliant network device. Ingress Filtering
A port on a Switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be made is referred to as an ingress port. If ingress filtering is enabled for a port, the Switch will examine the VLAN information in the packet header (if present) and decide whether or not to forward the packet. If the packet is tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will first determine if the ingress port itself is a member of the tagged VLAN. If it is not, the packet will be dropped. If the ingress port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the Switch then determines if the destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN. If it is not, the packet is dropped. If the destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it to its attached network segment. If the packet is not tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will tag the packet with its own PVID as a VID (if the port is a tagging port). The Switch then determines if the destination port is a member of the same VLAN (has the same
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
VID) as the ingress port. If it does not, the packet is dropped. If it has the same VID, the packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it on its attached network segment. This process is referred to as ingress filtering and is used to conserve bandwidth within the Switch by dropping packets that are not on the same VLAN as the ingress port at the point of reception. This eliminates the subsequent processing of packets that will just be dropped by the destination port. Default VLANs
The Switch initially configures one VLAN, VID = 1, called "default." The factory default setting assigns all ports on the Switch to the "default." Packets cannot cross VLANs. If a member of one VLAN wants to connect to another VLAN, the link must be through an external router.
NOTE: If no VLANs are configured on the Switch, then all packets will be forwarded to any destination port. Packets with unknown source addresses will be flooded to all ports. Broadcast and multicast packets will
also be flooded to all ports.
An example is presented below: VLAN Name VID Switch Ports
5, 6, 7, 8, 21, 22, 23, 24
9, 10, 11, 12
13, 14, 15, 16
17, 18, 19, 20
1, 2, 3, 4 Table 8-1. VLAN Example - Assigned Ports VLAN and Trunk Groups
The members of a trunk group have the same VLAN setting. Any VLAN setting on the members of a trunk group will apply to the other member ports.
NOTE: In order to use VLAN segmentation in conjunction with port trunk groups, you can first set the port trunk group(s), and then you may configure VLAN settings. If you wish to change the port trunk grouping with VLANs already in place, you will not need to reconfigure the VLAN settings after changing the port trunk group settings. VLAN settings will
automatically change in conjunction with the change of the port trunk
group settings. VLAN status
This allows the VLAN status for each of the Switch's ports to be viewed by VLAN. This window displays the ports on the Switch that are currentlyEgress or Tag ports. To view the following table, open the L2 features->VLAN folder and click the VLAN Status Link.
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Figure 8- 4. VLAN Status Window Parameter Description VLAN ID
Displays the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN in the Modify window. VLANs can be identified by either the VID or the VLAN name. VLAN Name
Displays the entry of a name for the new VLAN. Ports
Displays the ports included in the port. Status
Displays VLANâ€™s status.
Static VLAN Entry
In L2 Features folder, open the VLANs folder and click the Static VLAN Entry link to open the following window:
Figure 8- 5. first 802.1Q Static VLANs window
The first 802.1Q Static VLANs window lists all previously configured VLANs by VLAN ID and VLAN Name. To delete
an existing 802.1Q VLAN, click the corresponding
button under the Delete heading.
Parameter Description VLAN ID
Displays the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN in the Modify window. VLANs can be identified by either the VID or the VLAN name. VLAN Name
Displays the VLAN ID. Ports
Specifies the ports included in the VLAN.
To create a new 802.1Q VLAN, click the Add button in the first 802.1Q Static VLANs window. A new window will appear, as shown below, to configure the port settings and to assign a unique name and number to the new VLAN. See the table below for a description of the parameters in the new window.
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Figure 8- 6. Second 802.1Q Static VLANs Window (Add)
To return to the first 802.1Q Static VLANs window, click the Show All Static VLAN Entries link. To change an existing 802.1Q VLAN entry, click the Modify button of the corresponding entry you wish to modify. A new window will appear to configure the port settings and to assign a unique name and number to the new VLAN. See the table below for a description of the parameters in the new window.
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Figure 8- 7. Second 802.1Q Static VLANs Window (Modify)
The following fields can then be set in either the Add or Modify802.1Q Static VLANs windows:
Parameter Description VID (VLAN ID)
Allows the entry of a VLAN ID in the Add window, or displays the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN in the Modify window. VLANs can be identified by either the VID or the VLAN name. VLAN Name
Allows the entry of a name for the new VLAN in the Add window, or for editing the VLAN name in the Modify window. Port Settings
Allows an individual port to be specified as member of a VLAN. Tag
Specifies the port as either 802.1Q tagging or 802.1Q untagged. Checking the box will designate the port as Tagged. None
Allows an individual port to be specified as a non-VLAN member. Egress
Select this to specify the port as a static member of the VLAN. Egress member ports are ports that will be transmitting traffic for the VLAN. These ports can be either tagged or untagged.
52 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Forbidden
Select this to specify the port as not being a member of the VLAN and that the port is forbidden from becoming a member of the VLAN dynamically.
Click Apply to implement changes made. GVRP Port Settings
In the L2 Futures menu, open the VLANs folder and click GVRP Settings. This GVRP Settings window, shown below, allows you to determine whether the Switch will share its VLAN configuration information with other GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) enabled Switches. In addition, Ingress Checking can be used to limit traffic by filtering incoming packets whose PVID does not match the PVID of the port. Results can be seen in the table under the configuration settings, as seen below.
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Figure 8- 8. GVRP Settings Window
The following fields can be set: Parameter Description From/To
These two fields allow you to specify the range of ports that will be included in the VLAN that you are creating using the GVRP Settings window. Ingress Check
This field can be toggled using the space bar between Enabled and Disabled. Enabled enables the port to compare the VID tag of an incoming packet with the PVID number assigned to the port. If the two are different, the port filters (drops) the packet. Disabled disables ingress filtering. Ingress Checking is Enabled by default. Acceptable Frame
This field denotes the type of frame that will be accepted by the port. The user may Type
choose between Tagged Only, which means only VLAN tagged frames will be accepted, and Admit_All, which means both tagged and untagged frames will be accepted. Admit_All is enabled by default.
54 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description PVID
This field in the 802.1Q Port Table shows the current PVID assignment for each port, which may be manually assigned to a VLAN when created in the 802.1Q Port Settings table. The Switch's default is to assign all ports to the default VLAN with a VID of 1.The PVID is used by the port to tag outgoing, untagged packets, and to make filtering decisions about incoming packets. If the port is specified to accept only tagged frames - as tagging, and an untagged packet is forwarded to the port for transmission, the port will add an 802.1Q tag using the PVID to write the VID in the tag. When the packet arrives at its destination, the receiving device will use the PVID to make VLAN forwarding decisions. If a packet is received by the port, and Ingress filtering is Enabled, the port will compare the VID of the incoming packet to its PVID. If the two are unequal, the port will drop the packet. If the two are equal, the port will receive the packet. GVRP
The Group VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) enables the port to dynamically become a member of a VLAN. GVRP is Disabled by default.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
Port trunk groups are used to combine a number of ports together to make a single high-bandwidth data pipeline. The DGS-3048 supports up to four port trunk groups with 2 to 8 ports in each group. A potential bit rate of 8000 Mbps can be achieved.
Figure 8- 9. Example of Port Trunk Group
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The Switch treats all ports in a trunk group as a single port. Data transmitted to a specific host (destination address) will always be transmitted over the same port in a trunk group. This allows packets in a data stream to arrive in the same order they were sent.
NOTE: If any ports within the trunk group become disconnected, packets intended for the disconnected port will be load shared among the other uplinked ports of the link aggregation group.
Link aggregation allows several ports to be grouped together and to act as a single link. This gives a bandwidth that is a multiple of a single link's bandwidth. Link aggregation is most commonly used to link a bandwidth intensive network device or devices, such as a server, to the backbone of a network. The Switch allows the creation of up to four link aggregation groups, each group consisting of 2 to 8 links (ports). The aggregated links must be contiguous (they must have sequential port numbers) except the two (optional) Gigabit ports, which can only belong to a single link aggregation group. All of the ports in the group must be members of the same VLAN, and their STP status, static multicast, traffic control, traffic segmentation and 802.1p default priority configurations must be identical. Port locking, port mirroring and 802.1x must not be enabled on the trunk group. Further, the aggregated links must all be of the same speed and should be configured as full duplex. Load balancing is automatically applied to the ports in the aggregated group, and a link failure within the group causes the network traffic to be directed to the remaining links in the group. The Spanning Tree Protocol will treat a link aggregation group as a single link, on the Switch level. On the port level, the STP will use the port parameters of the Master Port in the calculation of port cost and in determining the state of the link aggregation group. If two redundant link aggregation groups are configured on the Switch, STP will block one entire group, in the same way STP will block a single port that has a redundant link. To configure port trunking, click on the Link Aggregation hyperlink in the Configuration folder to bring up the following window:
Figure 8- 10. Port Trunking Group Window
To configure port trunk groups, click the Add button to add a new trunk group and use the Link Aggreation Group Configuration. window to set up trunk groups. To modify a port trunk group, click the Modify button corresponding to the
entry you wish to alter. To delete a port trunk group, click the corresponding
under the Delete heading in the Current
Trunking Group Entries table.
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Clicking the Modify button will open the Link Aggregation Group Configuration window, shown below:
Figure 8- 11. Link Aggregation Group Configuration Window (Modify)
The user-changeable parameters are as follows: Parameter Description State
Trunk groups can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled. This is used to turn a port trunking group on or off. This is useful for diagnostics, to quickly isolate a bandwidth intensive network device or to have an absolute backup aggregation group that is not under automatic control. Type
The type of port trunking supported by the DGS-3048 is Static. Members Port
Choose the members of a trunked group. Up to eight ports per group can be assigned to a group.
After setting the previous parameters, click Apply to allow your changes to be implemented. Successfully created trunk groups will be show in the Current Trunking Group Entries table. IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping allows the Switch to recognize IGMP queries and reports sent between network stations or devices and an IGMP host. When enabled for IGMP snooping, the Switch can open or close a port to a specific device based on IGMP messages passing through the Switch. In order to use IGMP Snooping it must first be enabled for the entire Switch on the DGS-3048 Web Management Tool (Switch Information window). You may then fine-tune the settings for each VLAN by clicking the IGMP Snooping link in the Configuration folder. When enabled for IGMP snooping, the Switch can open or close a port to a specific multicast group member based on IGMP messages sent from the device to the IGMP host or vice versa. The Switch monitors IGMP messages and discontinues forwarding multicast packets when there are no longer hosts requesting that they continue. Use the Current IGMP Snooping Group Entries window to view IGMP Snooping settings. To modify the settings, click the Modify button of the VLAN ID you want to change.
57 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Current IGMP Snooping Group Entries
Open the IGMPSnooping folder in the L2 Features menu and click on the IGMP Snooping settings link. This will open the Current IGMP Snooping Group Entries window, as shown below:
Figure 8- 12. Current IGMP Snooping Group Entries window
Clicking the Modify button will open the IGMP Snooping Settings window, shown below: Figure 8- 13. IGMP Snooping Settings Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Host Timeout
Specifies the maximum amount of time a host can be a member of a multicast group without the Switch receiving a host membership report. The default is 260 seconds. MRouter Timeout
Specifies the maximum amount of time a route can be a member of a multicast group without the Switch receiving a host membership report. The default is 300 seconds. Leave Timer (0-25 Leave timer. The default is 2 seconds. sec) State
Allows the user to enable or disable IGMP snooping for the specified VLAN.
Static Router Port Entries
Open the IGMPSnooping folder in the L2 Features menu and click on the IGMP Snooping settings link. This will open the CurrentStatic Router Port Entries window, as shown below:
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Figure 8- 14. Current Static Router Port Window
Clicking the Modify button will open the Static Router Port Entries window, shown below:
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Figure 8- 15. Current Static Router Port Window (Modify)
Forwarding and Filtering Unicast Forwarding
Open the Forwarding folder in the Configuration menu and click on the Unicast Forwarding link. This will open the Setup Static Unicast Forwarding Table window, as shown below:
Figure 8- 16. Setup Static Unicast Forwarding Table window
To add or edit an entry, define the following parameters and then click Add/Modify:
Parameter Description VID (VLAN ID)
The VLAN ID number of the VLAN on which the above Unicast MAC address resides. MAC Address
The MAC address to which packets will be statically forwarded. This must be a unicast MAC address.
60 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Allowed to go port
Allows the selection of the port number on which the MAC address entered above resides.
Click Apply to implement the changes made. To delete an entry in the Static Unicast Forwarding Table, click the
under the Deleteheading. Multicast Forwarding
The following window describes how to set up Multicast Forwarding on the Switch. Open the Forwarding folder and click on the Multicast Forwarding link to see the entry window below:
Figure 8- 17. Static Multicast Forwarding Settings Window
The Static Multicast Forwarding Settings window displays all of the entries made into the Switch's static multicast forwarding table. Click the Add button to open the Setup Static Multicast Forwarding Table window, as shown below:
Figure 8- 18. Setup Static Multicast Forwarding Table Window
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The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN the corresponding MAC address belongs to. Multicast MAC
The MAC address of the static source of multicast packets. This must be a multicast Address
MAC address. Port Settings
Allows the selection of ports that will be members of the static multicast group and ports that are either forbidden from joining dynamically, or that can join the multicast group dynamically, using GMRP. The options are: None - No restrictions on the port dynamically joining the multicast group. When None is chosen, the port will not be a member of the Static Multicast Group. Egress - The port is a static member of the multicast group.
Click Apply to implement the changes made. To delete an entry in the Static Multicast Forwarding Table, click the
under the Delete heading. Click the Show All Multicast Forwarding Entries link to return to the Static Multicast Forwarding Settings window. Spanning Tree
This Switch supports three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol; 802.1d STP, 802.1w Rapid STP and 802.1s MSTP. 802.1d STP will be familiar to most networking professionals. However, since 802.1w RSTP and 802.1s MSTP has been recently introduced to D-Link managed Ethernet switches, a brief introduction to the technology is provided below followed by a description of how to set up 802.1d STP, 802.1w RSTP and 802.1s MSTP. 802.1s MSTP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, or MSTP, is a standard defined by the IEEE community that allows multiple VLANs to be mapped to a single spanning tree instance, which will provide multiple pathways across the network. Therefore, these MSTP configurations will balance the traffic load, preventing wide scale disruptions when a single spanning tree instance fails. This will allow for faster convergences of new topologies for the failed instance. Frames designated for these VLANs will be processed quickly and completely throughout interconnected bridges utilizing either of the three spanning tree protocols (STP, RSTP or MSTP). This protocol will also tag BDPU packets so receiving devices can distinguish spanning tree instances, spanning tree regions and the VLANs associated with them. These instances will be classified by an MSTI ID. MSTP will connect multiple spanning trees with a Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST will automatically determine each MSTP region, its maximum possible extent and will appear as one virtual bridge that runs a single spanning tree. Consequentially, frames assigned to different VLANs will follow different data routes within administratively established regions on the network, continuing to allow simple and full processing of frames, regardless of administrative errors in defining VLANs and their respective spanning trees. Each switch utilizing the MSTP on a network will have a single MSTP configuration that will have the following three attributes:
1. A configuration name defined by an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters (defined in the Current MST Configuration Identification window in the Configuration Namefield).
2. A configuration revision number (named here as a Revision Level (0-65535) and found in the Current MST Configuration Identification window) and;
3. A 4096-element table (defined here as a VID List in the Current MST Configuration Identification window)
that will associate each of the possible 4096 VLANs supported by the Switch for a given instance.
To utilize the MSTP function on the Switch, three steps need to be taken:
1. The Switch must be set to MSTP (found in the STP Bridge Global Settings window in the STP Version field) 2. The correct spanning tree priority for the MSTP instance must be entered (defined here as a Priority in the STP Instance Table window when configuring the settings for an MSTI ID).
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3. VLANs that will be shared must be added to the MSTP Instance ID (defined here as aVID Listin the Current MST ConfigurationIdentification window when configuring the settings for an MSTI ID). 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree
The Switch implements three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol, the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as defined by the IEEE 802.1s, the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) as defined by the IEEE 802.1w specification and a version compatible with the IEEE 802.1d STP. RSTP can operate with legacy equipment implementing IEEE 802.1d, however the advantages of using RSTP will be lost. The IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) evolved from the 802.1d STP standard. RSTP was developed in order to overcome some limitations of STP that impede the function of some recent switching innovations, in particular, certain Layer 3 functions that are increasingly handled by Ethernet switches. The basic function and much of the terminology is the same as STP. Most of the settings configured for STP are also used for RSTP. This section introduces some new Spanning Tree concepts and illustrates the main differences between the two protocols. Port Transition States
An essential difference between the three protocols is in the way ports transition to a forwarding state and in the way this transition relates to the role of the port (forwarding or not forwarding) in the topology. MSTP and RSTP combine the transition states disabled, blocking and listening used in 802.1d and creates a single state Discarding. In either case, ports do not forward packets. In the STP port transition states disabled, blocking or listening or in the RSTP/MSTP port state discarding, there is no functional difference, the port is not active in the network topology. Table 6-1 below compares how the three protocols differ regarding the port state transition. All three protocols calculate a stable topology in the same way. Every segment will have a single path to the root bridge. All bridges listen for BPDU packets. However, BPDU packets are sent more frequently - with every Hello packet. BPDU packets are sent even if a BPDU packet was not received. Therefore, each link between bridges is sensitive to the status of the link. Ultimately this difference results in faster detection of failed links, and thus faster topology adjustment. A draw- back of 802.1d is this absence of immediate feedback from adjacent bridges. 802.1d MSTP 802.1w RSTP 802.1d STP Forwarding Learning
Discarding Discarding Disabled No
Discarding Discarding Blocking No
Discarding Discarding Listening No
Learning Learning Learning No
Forwarding Forwarding Forwarding Yes
Yes Table 7- 1. Comparing Port States
RSTP is capable of a more rapid transition to a forwarding state - it no longer relies on timer configurations - RSTP compliant bridges are sensitive to feedback from other RSTP compliant bridge links. Ports do not need to wait for the topology to stabilize before transitioning to a forwarding state. In order to allow this rapid transition, the protocol introduces two new variables: the edge port and the point-to-point (P2P) port. Edge Port
The edge port is a configurable designation used for a port that is directly connected to a segment where a loop cannot be created. An example would be a port connected directly to a single workstation. Ports that are designated as edge ports transition to a forwarding state immediately, without going through the listening and learning states. An edge port loses its status if it receives a BPDU packet, immediately becoming a normal spanning tree port.
63 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual P2P Port
A P2P port is also capable of rapid transition. P2P ports may be used to connect to other bridges. Under RSTP/MSTP, all ports operating in full-duplex mode are considered to be P2P ports, unless manually overridden through configuration. 802.1d/802.1w/802.1s Compatibility
MSTP or RSTP can interoperate with legacy equipment and is capable of automatically adjusting BPDU packets to 802.1d format when necessary. However, any segment using 802.1d STP will not benefit from the rapid transition and rapid topology change detection of MSTP or RSTP. The protocol also provides for a variable used for migration in the event that legacy equipment on a segment is updated to use RSTP or MSTP. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) operates on two levels:
1. On the switch level, the settings are globally implemented. 2. On the port level, the settings are implemented on a per user-defined group of ports basis. STP Bridge Global Settings
To open the following window, open the Spanning Tree folder in the Configuration menu and click the STP Bridge Global Settings link.
Figure 8- 21. STP Bridge Global Settings window - MSTP
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description STP Status
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable STP globally on the Switch. The default is Disabled. STP Version
Use the pull-down menu to choose the desired version of STP to be implemented on the Switch. There are three choices: STP - Select this parameter to set the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) globally on the switch. RSTP - Select this parameter to set the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) globally on the Switch. MSTP - Select this parameter to set the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) globally on the Switch. Hello Time (1-10 Sec)
The Hello Time can be set from 1 to 10 seconds. This is the interval between two transmissions of BPDU packets sent by the Root Bridge to tell all other switches that it is indeed the Root Bridge. This field will only appear here when STP or RSTP is selected for the STP Version. For MSTP, the Hello Time must be set on a port per port basis. See the STP Port Settings section for further details. Max Age (6-40 Sec)
The Max Age may be set to ensure that old information does not endlessly circulate through redundant paths in the network, preventing the effective propagation of the new information. Set by the Root Bridge, this value will aid in determining that the Switch has spanning tree configuration values consistent with other devices on the bridged LAN. If the value ages out and a BPDU has still not been received from the Root Bridge, the Switch will start sending its own BPDU to all other switches for permission to become the Root Bridge. If it turns out that your switch has the lowest Bridge Identifier, it will become the Root Bridge. The user may choose a time between 6 and 40 seconds. The default value is 20. Forward Delay (4 - 30
The Forward Delay can be from 4 to 30 seconds. Any port on the Switch spends Sec)
this time in the listening state while moving from the blocking state to the for- warding state. Max Hops (1-20)
Used to set the number of hops between devices in a spanning tree region before the BPDU (bridge protocol data unit) packet sent by the Switch will be discarded. Each switch on the hop count will reduce the hop count by one until the value reaches zero. The Switch will then discard the BDPU packet and the information
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held for the port will age out. The user may set a hop count from 1 to 20. The default is 20. Forwarding BPDU
This field can be Enabled or Disabled. When Enabled, it allows the forwarding of STP BPDU packets from other network devices. The default is Enabled.
Click Apply to implement changes made. NOTE: The Hello Time cannot be longer than the Max. Age. Otherwise, a configuration error will occur. Observe the following formulas when setting the above parameters:
Max. Age â‰¤ 2 x (Forward Delay - 1 second)
Max. Age â‰Ą 2 x (Hello Time + 1 second) STP Port Settings
STP can be set up on a port per port basis. To view the following window click Administration > Spanning Tree > STP Port Settings:
Figure 8- 22. STP Port Settings Window
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In addition to setting Spanning Tree parameters for use on the switch level, the Switch allows for the configuration of groups of ports, each port-group of which will have its own spanning tree, and will require some of its own configuration settings. An STP Group will use the switch-level parameters entered above, with the addition of Port Priority and Port Cost. An STP Group spanning tree works in the same way as the switch-level spanning tree, but the root bridge concept is replaced with a root port concept. A root port is a port of the group that is elected based on port priority and port cost, to be the connection to the network for the group. Redundant links will be blocked, just as redundant links are blocked on the switch level. The STP on the switch level blocks redundant links between switches (and similar network devices). The port level STP will block redundant links within an STP Group. It is advisable to define an STP Group to correspond to a VLAN group of ports. The following fields can be set:
Parameter Description From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port. External Cost (0 =
This defines a metric that indicates the relative cost of forwarding packets to the Auto)
specified port list. Port cost can be set automatically or as a metric value. The default value is 0 (auto). 0 (auto) - Setting 0 for the external cost will automatically set the speed for
forwarding packets to the specified port(s) in the list for optimal efficiency. Default port cost: 100Mbps port = 200000. Gigabit port = 20000. value 1-200000000 - Define a value between 1 and 200000000 to determine
the external cost. The lower the number, the greater the probability the port will be chosen to forward packets. Edge
Choosing the True parameter designates the port as an edge port. Edge ports cannot create loops, however an edge port can lose edge port status if a topology change creates a potential for a loop. An edge port normally should not receive BPDU packets. If a BPDU packet is received, it automatically loses edge port status. Choosing the False parameter indicates that the port does not have edge port status. P2P
Choosing the True parameter indicates a point-to-point (P2P) shared link. P2P ports are similar to edge ports, however they are restricted in that a P2P port must operate in full duplex. Like edge ports, P2P ports transition to a forwarding state rapidly thus benefiting from RSTP. A p2p value of false indicates that the port cannot have p2p status. Auto allows the port to have p2p status whenever possible and operate as if the p2p status were true. If the port cannot maintain this status, (for example if the port is forced to half-duplex operation) the p2p status changes to operate as if the p2p value were False. The default setting for this parameter is Auto. State
This drop-down menu allows you to enable or disable STP for the selected group of ports. The default is Disabled.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
MST Configuration Identification
The following windows allow the user to configure a MSTI instance on the Switch. These settings will uniquely identify a multiple spanning tree instance set on the Switch. The Switch initially possesses one CIST or Common Internal Spanning Tree of which the user may modify the parameters for but cannot change the MSTI ID for, and cannot be deleted. To view the CurrentMST Configuration Identification window, click Administration > Spanning Tree > MST Configuration Identification:
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Figure 8- 23. Current MST Configuration Identification Window
The window above contains the following information: Parameter Description Configuration Name
A previously configured name set on the Switch to uniquely identify the MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance). If a configuration name is not set, this field will show the MAC address to the device running MSTP. Revision Level
This value, along with the Configuration Name will identify the MSTP region con- figured on the Switch. MSTI ID
This field shows the MSTI IDs currently set on the Switch. This field will always have the CIST MSTI, which may be configured but not deleted. Clicking the hyperlinked name will open a new window for configuring parameters associated with that particular MSTI. VID List
This field displays the VLAN IDs associated with the specific MSTI.
To delete a previously set MSTI Instance ID, click the corresponding under the Delete heading in the CurrentMST Configuration Identification window. Clicking the Add button will reveal the following window to configure:
Figure 8- 24. Instance ID Settings Window - Add
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The user may configure the following parameters to create a MSTI in the Switch. Parameter Description MSTI ID
Enter a number between 1 and 15 to set a new MSTI on the Switch. Type Create is selected to create a new MSTI. No other choices are available for this field when creating a new MSTI. VID List (1-4094)
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch. Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094.
Click Apply to implement changes made. To configure the settings for the CIST, click on its hyperlinked MSTI ID number in the CurrentMST Configuration Identification window, which will reveal the following window to configure:
Figure 8- 25. Instance ID Settings Window - CIST modify
The user may configure the following parameters to configure the CIST on the Switch. Parameter Description MSTI ID
The MSTI ID of the CIST is 0 and cannot be altered. Type
This field allows the user to choose a desired method for altering the MSTI settings. The user has two choices. Add VID - Select this parameter to add VIDs to the MSTI ID, in conjunction with
the VID List parameter. Remove VID - Select this parameter to remove VIDs from the MSTI ID, in con-
junction with the VID List parameter. VID List (1-4094)
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch. Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094.
Click Apply to implement changes made. To configure the parameters for a previously set MSTI, click on its hyperlinked MSTI IDnumber, which will reveal the following window for configuration.
Figure 8- 26. Instance ID Settings Window - Modify
The user may configure the following parameters for a MSTI on the Switch.
69 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description MSTI ID
Displays the MSTI ID previously set by the user. Type
This field allows the user to choose a desired method for altering the MSTI settings. The user has two choices. Add VID - Select this parameter to add VIDs to the MSTI ID, in conjunction with
the VID List parameter. Remove VID - Select this parameter to remove VIDs from the MSTI ID, in con-
junction with the VID List parameter. VID List (1-4094)
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch that the user wishes to add to this MSTI ID. Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094. This parameter can only be utilized if the Type chosen is Add or Remove.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
MSTP Port Information Multiple Spanning Tree (MSTP) provides differing load balancing scenarios. For example, while port A is blocked in one STP instance, the same port can be placed in the Forwarding state in another STP instance.
Figure 8- 27. MSTP Port Information â€“ Port 1
Parameter Description MSTI
Displays the MSTI ID previously set by the user. Designated Bridge
Indicates the bridge priority. Internal Pathcost
Indicates the selected instanceâ€™s path cost.. Prio
Indicates the priority value of the port. Status
Indicates if STP is enabled on the port. The possible field values are: â€˘Enabled â€” Indicates that STP is enabled on the port.â€˘Disabled â€” Indicates that STP is dis-abled on the port. Role
Displays the port role assigned by the STP algorithm to provide to STP paths.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
70 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 9 QoS Advantages of QoS
QoS is an implementation of the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows network administrators a method of reserving bandwidth for important functions that require a large bandwidth or have a high priority, such as VoIP (voice-over Internet Protocol), Web browsing applications, file server applications or video conferencing. Not only can a larger bandwidth be created, but other less critical traffic can be limited, so excessive bandwidth can be saved. The Switch has separate hardware queues on every physical port to which packets from various applications can be mapped to, and, in turn prioritized. View the following map to see how the DGS-3048 implements 802.1P priority queuing.
Figure 9- 1. Mapping QoS on the Switch
The picture above shows the default priority setting for the Switch. Class-3 has the highest priority of the eight priority queues on the Switch. In order to implement QoS, the user is required to instruct the Switch to examine the header of a packet to see if it has the proper identifying tag tagged. Then the user may forward these tagged packets to designated queues on the Switch where they will be emptied, based on priority. For example, lets say a user wishes to have a video conference between two remotely set computers. The administrator can add priority tags to the video packets being sent out, utilizing the Access Profile commands. Then, on the receiving end, the administrator instructs the Switch to examine packets for this tag, acquires the tagged packets and maps them to a class queue on the Switch. Then in turn, the administrator will set a priority for this queue so that will be emptied before any other packet is forwarded. This results in the end user receiving all packets sent as quickly as possible, thus prioritizing the queue and allowing for an uninterrupted stream of packets, which optimizes the use of bandwidth available for the video conference. Understanding QoS
The Switch has eight priority queues. These priority queues are labeled as 7, the highest queue to 0, the lowest queue. The eight priority tags, specified in IEEE 802.1p are mapped to the Switch's priority tags as follows:
â€˘ Priority 0 is assigned to the Switch's Q0 queue. â€˘ Priority 1 is assigned to the Switch's Q1 queue. â€˘ Priority 2 is assigned to the Switch's Q2 queue. â€˘ Priority 3 is assigned to the Switch's Q3 queue.
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â€˘ Priority 4 is assigned to the Switch's Q4 queue. â€˘ Priority 5 is assigned to the Switch's Q5 queue. â€˘ Priority 6 is assigned to the Switch's Q6 queue. â€˘ Priority 7 is assigned to the Switch's Q7 queue.
For strict priority-based scheduling, any packets residing in the higher priority queues are transmitted first. Multiple strict priority queues empty based on their priority tags. Only when these queues are empty, are packets of lower priority transmitted. For weighted round-robin queuing, the number of packets sent from each priority queue depends upon the assigned weight. For a configuration of eight CoS queues, A~H with their respective weight value: 8~1, the packets are sent in the following sequence: A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1, A2, B2, C2, D2, E2, F2, G2, A3, B3, C3, D3, E3, F3, A4, B4, C4, D4, E4, A5, B5, C5, D5, A6, B6, C6, A7, B7, A8, A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1. For weighted round-robin queuing, if each CoS queue has the same weight value, then each CoS queue has an equal opportunity to send packets just like round-robin queuing. For weighted round-robin queuing, if the weight for a CoS is set to 0, then it will continue processing the packets from this CoS until there are no more packets for this CoS. The other CoS queues that have been given a nonzero value, and depending upon the weight, will follow a common weighted round-robin scheme. Remember that the DGS-3048 has eight priority queues (and eight Classes of Service) for each port on the Switch.
72 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Bandwidth Control
Bandwidth control limits the amount of Multicast and Broadcast frames accepted and forwarded by the device. When Layer 2 frames are forwarded, Broadcast and Multicast frames are flooded to all ports on the relevant VLAN. This occupies bandwidth, and loads all nodes on all ports.
Figure 9- 2. Bandwidth Control Window
The following fields can be set: Parameter Description Port
Indicates the port from/to which storm control is enabled. Rate
The maximum rate (kilobytes per second) at which unknown packets are forwarded
73 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Traffic Control
Use the Traffic Control window to enable or disable storm control and adjust the threshold for multicast/broadcast/DLF (Destination Look Up Failure) storms. Traffic control settings are applied to individual Switch modules. To view the following window, click QoS >Traffic Control.
Figure 9- 3. Storm Control Type Setting Window
The purpose of this window is to limit too many broadcast, multicast or unknown unicast packets folding the network. The Storm Control Type Settings you can choose from are: broadcast and broadcast_multicast. The Threshold value is the upper threshold at which the specified traffic control is Switched on. This is the number of Broadcast and Broadcast/Multicast packets received by the Switch that will trigger the storm traffic control measures. The Threshold value can be set from 3500 to 1000000 Kb per second. The default setting is 3500. The settings of each port may be viewed in the Traffic Control Information Tablein the same window. To configure the Storm Control Type Setting, select the desired Storm Control Type from the pull-down menu, select the threshold from the drop-down menu, and click Apply. To configure the Traffic Control Setting, select the beginning and ending ports by using the From/Topull-down menu. Now, change the Traffic control State to Enabled and click Apply. 802.1p Default Priority
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The Switch allows the assignment of a default 802.1p priority to each port on the Switch. In the Administration folder open the QoS folder and click 802.1p Default Priority, to view the window shown below.
Figure 9- 4. Port Default Priority Assignment window
This window allows you to assign a default 802.1p priority to any given port on the Switch. The priority queues are numbered from 0, the lowest priority, to 7, the highest priority. Click Apply to implement your settings. 802.1p User Priority
The DGS-3048 allows the assignment of a user priority to each of the 802.1p priorities. In the Configuration folder open the QoS folder and click 802.1p User Priority, to view the window shown below.
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Figure 9- 5. User Priority Configuration Window
Once you have assigned a priority to the port groups on the Switch, you can then assign this Class to each of the four levels of 802.1p priorities. Click Apply to set your changes. QoS Scheduling Mechanism
This window allows you to select between a RoundRobinand a Strict mechanism for emptying the priority classes. In the Configuration menu open the QoS folder and click QoS Scheduling Mechanism, to view the window shown below
Figure 9- 6. QoS Scheduling Mechanism Window
The Scheduling Mechanism has the following parameters. Parameter Description Strict
The highest class of service is the first to process traffic. That is, the highest class of service will finish before other queues empty.
76 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description RoundRobin
Use the weighted round-robin (WRR) algorithm to handle packets in an even distribution in priority classes of service.
Click Apply to make your changes take effect.
NOTE: The settings you assign to the queues, numbers 0-7, represent the IEEE 802.1p priority tag number. Do not confuse these settings with port numbers.
QoS Output Scheduling
QoS can be customized by changing the output scheduling used for the hardware classes of service in the Switch. As with any changes to QoS implementation, careful consideration should be given to how network traffic in lower priority classes of service is affected. Changes in scheduling may result in unacceptable levels of packet loss or significant transmission delay. If you choose to customize this setting, it is important to monitor network performance, especially during peak demand, as bottlenecks can quickly develop if the QoS settings are not suitable. In the Administration folder open the QoS folder and click QoS Output Scheduling, to view the window shown below: Note: In order to configure QoS Output Scheduling it needs to be in the Round Robin parameter.
Figure 9- 7. QoS Output Scheduling Window
You may assign the following values to the QoS classes to set the scheduling. Parameter Description Weight
Specifies the maximum number of packets the above specified hardware priority class of service will be allowed to transmit before allowing the next lowest priority queue to transmit its packets. A value between 0 and 15 can be specified.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 10 Security The second Web Manager main folder is Security and includes the following windows and sub-folders: Trusted Host, Secure Socket Layer (SSL), Secure Shell (SSH), and Access Authentication Control, as well as secondary windows. 802.1x Port Access Entity 802.1x Port-Based Access Control
The IEEE 802.1x standard is a security measure for authorizing and authenticating users to gain access to various wired or wireless devices on a specified Local Area Network by using a Client and Server based access control model. This is accomplished by using a RADIUS server to authenticate users trying to access a network by relaying Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) packets between the Client and the Server. The following figure represents a basic EAPOL packet:
Figure 10- 1. EAPOL Packet
Utilizing this method, unauthorized devices are restricted from connecting to a LAN through a port to which the user is connected. EAPOL packets are the only traffic that can be transmitted through the specific port until authorization is granted. The 802.1x Access Control protocol consists of three components, each of which is vital to creating and maintaining a stable and working Access Control security method.
78 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Figure 10- 2. Three Functions of 802.1x
The following section will explain Client, Authenticator, and Authentication Server in greater detail. Authentication Server
The Authentication Server is a remote device that is connected to the same network as the Client and Authenticator, must be running a RADIUS Server program and must be configured properly on the Authenticator (Switch). Clients connected to a port on the Switch must be authenticated by the Authentication Server (RADIUS) before attaining any services offered by the Switch on the LAN. The role of the Authentication Server is to certify the identity of the Client attempting to access the network by exchanging secure information between the RADIUS server and the Client through EAPOL packets and, in turn, informs the Switch whether or not the Client is granted access to the LAN and/or Switch services.
Figure 10- 3. Authentication Server Authenticator
The Authenticator (the Switch) is an intermediary between the Authentication Server and the Client. The Authenticator serves two purposes when utilizing 802.1x. The first purpose is to request certification information from the Client through EAPOL packets, which is the only information allowed to pass through the Authenticator before access is granted to the Client. The second purpose of the Authenticator is to verify the information gathered from the Client with the Authentication Server, and to then relay that information back to the Client. Three steps must be implemented on the Switch to properly configure the Authenticator.
I. The 802.1x State must be enabled to Port Base on the Switch Information (Advanced Settings) window under
Switch 802.1x (Configuration > Advanced Settings).
4. The 802.1x settings must be implemented by port. (Configuration > Port Access Entity > 802.1x Capability Settings).
5. A RADIUS server must be configured on the Switch on the Authentic RADIUS Server window (Security >
802.1x > RADIUS Server).
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` Figure 10- 4. Authenticator Client
The Client is simply the workstation that wishes to gain access to the LAN or Switch services. All workstation must be running software that is compliant with the 802.1x protocol. For users running Windows XP, the software is included within the operating system. All other users are required to attain 802.1x client software from an outside source. The Client will request access to the LAN and or Switch through EAPOL packets and, in turn will respond to requests from the Switch.
Figure 10- 5. Client Authentication Process
Utilizing the three components stated above, the 802.1x protocol provides a stable and secure way of authorizing and authenticating users attempting to access the network. Only EAPOL traffic is allowed to pass through the specified port before a successful authentication is made. This port is â€ślockedâ€ť until the point when a Client with the correct username and password is granted access and therefore successfully â€śunlocksâ€ť the port. Once unlocked, normal traffic is allowed to pass through the port. The implementation of 802.1x allows network administrators to choose Port-Based Access Control. This method requires only one user to be authenticated per port by a remote RADIUS server to allow the remaining users on the same port access to the network.
80 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Port-Based Network Access Control
The original intent behind the development of 802.1x was to leverage the characteristics of point-to-point in LANs. Any single LAN segment in such an infrastructures has no more than two devices attached to it, one of which is a Bridge Port. The Bridge Port detects events that indicate the attachment of an active device at the remote end of the link, or an active device becoming inactive. These events can be used to control the authorization state of the Port and initiate the process of authenticating the attached device if the Port is unauthorized. This is the Port-Based Network Access Control.
Network access controlled port
Network access uncontrolled port
Figure 10- 6. Example of Typical Port-Based Configuration
Once the connected Client has successfully been authenticated, the Port then becomes Authorized, and all subsequent traffic on the Port is not subject to access control restriction until an event occurs that causes the Port to become Unauthorized. Hence, if the Port is actually connected to a shared media LAN segment with more than one attached device, successfully authenticating one of the attached devices effectively provides access to the LAN for all devices on the shared segment. Clearly, the security offered in this situation is open to attack.
802.1x Authenticator Parameter
To configure the 802.1x Authenticator Settings, click Configure 802.1x Authenticator Parameter
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Figure 10- 7. 802.1x Authenticator Parameter Window
To configure the parameters, click the port number link.
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Parameter Description From and To
Enter the port or ports to be set. PortControl
This allows you to control the port authorization state.
Select forceAuthorized to disable 802.1x and cause the port to transition to the authorized state without any authentication exchange required. This means the port transmits and receives normal traffic without 802.1x-based authentication of the client.
If forceUnauthorized is selected, the port will remain in the unauthorized state, ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate. The Switch cannot provide authentication services to the client through the interface.
If auto is selected, it will enable 802.1x and cause the port to begin in the unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to be sent and received through the port. The authentication process begins when the link state of the port transitions from down to up, or when an EAPOL-start frame is received. The Switch then requests the identity of the client and begins relaying authentication messages between the client and the authentication server.
The default setting is auto. TxPeriod
This sets the TxPeriod of time for the authenticator PAE state machine. This value determines the period of an EAP Request/Identity packet transmitted to the client. The default setting is 30 seconds. QuietPeriod
This allows you to set the number of seconds that the Switch remains in the quiet state following a failed authentication exchange with the client. The default setting is 60 seconds. SuppTimeout
This value determines timeout conditions in the exchanges between the Authenticator and the client. The default setting is 30 seconds. ServerTimeout
This value determines timeout conditions in the exchanges between the
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Authenticator and the authentication server. The default setting is 30 seconds. MaxReq
The maximum number of times that the Switch will retransmit an EAP Request to the client before it times out of the authentication sessions. The default setting is 2. ReAuthPeriod
A constant that defines a nonzero number of seconds between periodic reauthentication of the client. The default setting is 3600 seconds. ReAuth
Determines whether regular reauthentication will take place on this port. The default setting is Disabled.
84 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual RADIUS Server
The RADIUS feature of the Switch allows you to facilitate centralized user administration as well as providing protection against a sniffing, active hacker. Click Security> 802.1x > Authentic RADIUS Server to open the Authentic RADIUS Server window shown below:
Figure 10- 8. Authentic RADIUS Server Setting window
This window displays the following information: Parameter Description Succession <First>
Choose the desired RADIUS server to configure: First, Second or Third. RADIUS Server
Set the RADIUS server IP. <0.0.0.0> Authentic Port
Set the RADIUS authentic server(s) UDP port. The default port is 1812. <1812> Accounting Port
The UDP port number for accounting requests. The default is 1813 Key
Specifies that a password and encryption key will be used between the Switch and the RADIUS server. Up to 32 characters can be used.
85 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Trusted Host
Go to the Security folder and click on the Trusted Host link; the following window will appear.
Figure 10- 9.Security IP Management Window
Use security IP management to permit remote stations to manage the Switch. If you choose to define one or more designated management stations, only the chosen stations, as defined by IP address, will be allowed management privilege through the web manager or Telnet session. To define a management station IP setting, type in the IP address and click the Apply button. Access Authentication Control
The TACACS+ / RADIUS commands let you secure access to the Switch using the / TACACS+ / RADIUS protocols. When a user logs in to the Switch or tries to access the administrator level privilege, he or she is prompted for a password. If TACACS+ / RADIUS authentication is enabled on the Switch, it will contact a TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify the user. If the user is verified, he or she is granted access to the Switch. There are currently three versions of the TACACS security protocol, each a separate entity. The Switch's software supports the following versions of TACACS:
â€˘ TACACS+(Terminal Access Controller Access Control System plus) - Provides detailed access control for
authentication for network devices. TACACS+ is facilitated through Authentication commands via one or more centralized servers. The TACACS+ protocol encrypts all traffic between the Switch and the TACACS+ daemon, using the TCP protocol to ensure reliable delivery
In order for the TACACS+ / RADIUS security function to work properly, a TACACS+ / RADIUS server must be configured on a device other than the Switch, called an Authentication Server Host and it must include usernames and passwords for authentication. When the user is prompted by the Switch to enter usernames and passwords for authentication, the Switch contacts the TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify, and the server will respond with one of three messages:
â€˘ The server verifies the username and password, and the user is granted normal user privileges on the Switch. â€˘ The server will not accept the username and password and the user is denied access to the Switch. â€˘ The server doesn't respond to the verification query. At this point, the Switch receives the timeout from the server
and then moves to the next method of verification configured in the method list.
The Switch has four built-in Authentication Server Groups, one for each of the TACACS+ and RADIUS protocols. These built-in Authentication Server Groups are used to authenticate users trying to access the Switch. The users will set Authentication Server Hosts in a preferable order in the built-in Authentication Server Groups and when a user tries to gain access to the Switch, the Switch will ask the first Authentication Server Hosts for authentication. If no authentication is made, the second server host in the list will be queried, and so on. The built-in Authentication Server Groups can only have hosts that are running the specified protocol. For example, the TACACS Authentication Server Groups can only have TACACS Authentication Server Hosts. The administrator for the Switch may set up six different authentication techniques per user-defined method list (TACACS+ / RADIUS / local / none) for authentication. These techniques will be listed in an order preferable, and defined by the user for normal user authentication on the Switch, and may contain up to eight authentication techniques. When a user attempts to access the Switch, the Switch will select the first technique listed for authentication. If the first technique goes through its Authentication Server Hosts and no authentication is returned, the Switch will then go to the next technique listed in the server group for authentication, until the authentication has been verified or denied, or the list is exhausted.
86 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Please note that users granted access to the Switch will be granted normal user privileges on the Switch. To gain access to administrator level privileges, the user must access the Enable Admin using a CLI command.
NOTE: TACACS+ is a separate entitie and are not compatible. The Switch and the server must be configured exactly the same, using the same protocol. (For example, if the Switch is set up for TACACS+ authentication,
so must be the host server.) Application Authentication Settings
This window is used to configure switch configuration applications (console, Telnet, SSH, web) for login at the user level and at the administration level (Enable Admin) utilizing a previously configured method list. To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Application Authentication Settings:
Figure 10- 10.Application Authentication Settings Window
The following parameters can be set: Parameter Description Application
Lists the configuration applications on the Switch. The user may configure the Login Method List and Enable Method List for authentication for users utilizing the Console (Command Line Interface) application, the Telnet application, SSH and the Web (HTTP) application. Login Method List
Using the pull down menu, configure an application for normal login on the user level, utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the default Method List or other Method List configured by the user. See the Login Method Lists window, in this section, for more information. Enable Method List
Using the pull down menu, configure an application for normal login on the user level, utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the default Method List or other Method List configured by the user. See the Enable Method Lists window, in this section, for more information
Click Apply to implement changes made. Authentication Server Host
This window will set user-defined Authentication Server Hosts for the TACACS+ / RADIUS security protocols on the Switch. When a user attempts to access the Switch with Authentication Policy enabled, the Switch will send authentication packets to a remote TACACS+ / RADIUS server host on a remote host. The TACACS+ / RADIUS server host will then verify or deny the request and return the appropriate message to the Switch. More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server host but, remember that TACACS+ / RADIUS are separate entities and are not compatible with each other. The maximum supported number of server hosts is 16. To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Host:
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 10- 11. Authentication Server Host Settings Window
To add an Authentication Server Host, click the Add button, revealing the following window:
Figure 10- 12. Authentication Server Host Setting - Add Window
Configure the following parameters to add an Authentication Server Host: Parameter Description IP Address
The IP address of the remote server host the user wishes to add. Protocol
The protocol used by the server host. The user may choose one of the following: TACACS+ - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS+ protocol. RADIUS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the RADIUS protocol. Port (1-65535)
Enter a number between 1 and 65535 to define the virtual port number of the authentication protocol on a server host. Timeout (1-30)
Enter the time in seconds the Switch will wait for the server host to reply to an authentication request. Retransmit (1-10)
Enter the value in the retransmit field to change how many times the device will resend an authentication request when the TACACS server does not respond. Key
Authentication key to be shared with a configured TACACS+ or RADIUS servers only. Specify an alphanumeric string up to 254 characters.
Click Apply to add the server host.
NOTE: More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server host but, remember that TACACS+ are separate entities and are not compatible with each other
88 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Login Method Lists
This command will configure a user-defined or default Login Method List of authentication techniques for users logging on to the Switch. The sequence of techniques implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For example, if a user enters a sequence of techniques, for example TACACS+, RADIUS - local, the Switch will send an authentication request to the first TACACS+ host in the server group. If no response comes from the server host, the Switch will send an authentication request to the second TACACS+ host in the server group and so on, until the list is exhausted. At that point, the Switch will restart the same sequence with the following protocol listed, RADIUS. If no authentication takes place using the RADIUS list, the local account database set in the Switch is used to authenticate the user. When the local method is used, the privilege level will be dependant on the local account privilege configured on the Switch. Successful login using any of these techniques will give the user a "User" privilege only. If the user wishes to upgrade his or her status to the administrator level, the user must use a CLI command, after which the user must enter a previously configured password, set by the administrator. To view the following screen click Security > Access Authentication Control > Login Method Lists:
Figure 10- 13. Login Method List Settings Window
The Switch contains one Method List that is set and cannot be removed, yet can be modified. To delete a Login Method List
defined by the user, click the
under the Delete heading corresponding to the entry desired to be deleted. To modify a
Login Method List, click on its hyperlinked Method List Name. To configure a new Method List, click the Add button. Both actions will result in the same screen to configure:
Figure 10- 15. Login Method List â€“ Add Window
To define a Login Method List, set the following parameters and click Apply: Parameter Description Method List Name
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters. Method 1, 2, 3, 4
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following authentication methods to this method list: tacacs+ - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the TACACS+ protocol from a remote TACACS+ server. radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the RADIUS protocol from a remote RADIUS server. local - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the local user account database on the Switch.
none - Adding this parameter will require no authentication to access the Switch.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Enable Method Lists
The Enable Method Lists window is used to set up Method Lists to promote users with user level privileges to Administrator (Admin) level privileges using authentication methods on the Switch. Once a user acquires normal user level privileges on the Switch, he or she must be authenticated by a method on the Switch to gain administrator privileges on the Switch, which is defined by the Administrator. A maximum of eight (8) Enable Method Lists can be implemented on the Switch, one of which is a default Enable Method List. This default Enable Method List cannot be deleted but can be config- ured. The sequence of methods implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For example, if a user enters a sequence of methods like TACACS+ - RADIUS - Local Enable, the Switch will send an authentication request to the first TACACS+ host in the server group. If no verification is found, the Switch will send an authentication request to the second TACACS+ host in the server group and so on, until the list is exhausted. At that point, the Switch will restart the same sequence with the following protocol listed, RADIUS. If no authentication takes place using the RADIUS list, the Local Enable password set in the Switch is used to authenticate the user. Successful authentication using any of these methods will give the user an "Admin" privilege.
NOTE: To set the Local Enable Password, see the next section, entitled Local Enable Password.
To view the following table, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable Method Lists:
Figure 10- 16. Enable Method List Settings Window
To delete an Enable Method List defined by the user, click the
under the Delete heading corresponding to the entry
desired to be deleted. To modify an Enable Method List, click on its hyperlinked Method List Name. To configure a Method List, click the Add button. Both actions will result in the same window to configure:
Figure 10- 17. Enable Method List - Add Window
To define an Enable Login Method List, set the following parameters and click Apply:
91 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Method List Name
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters. Method 1, 2, 3, 4
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following authentication methods to this method list: local_enable - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the local enable password database on the Switch. The local enable password must be set by the user in the next section entitled Local Enable Password. none - Adding this parameter will require no authentication to access the Switch. radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the RADIUS protocol from a remote RADIUS server. tacacs+ - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server. Configure Local Enable Password
This window will configure the locally enabled password for the Enable Admin command. When a user chooses the "local_enable" method to promote user level privileges to administrator privileges, he or she will be prompted to enter the password configured here that is locally set on the Switch. To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Configure Local Enable Password:
Figure 10- 18. Configure Local Enable Password Window
To set the Local Enable Password, set the following parameters and click Apply. Parameter Description Old Local Enable
If a password was previously configured for this entry, enter it here in order to change it Password
to a new password New Local Enable
Enter the new password that you wish to set on the Switch to authenticate users Password
attempting to access Administrator Level privileges on the Switch. The user may set a password of up to 15 characters. Confirm Local
Confirm the new password entered above. Entering a different password here from the Enable Password
one set in the New Local Enabled field will result in a fail message.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
92 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Secure Sockets Layer or SSL is a security feature that will provide a secure communication path between a host and client through the use of authentication, digital signatures and encryption. These security functions are implemented through the use of a ciphersuite, which is a security string that determines the exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption algorithms and key sizes to be used for an authentication session and consists of three levels:
â€˘ Key Exchange: The first part of the cyphersuite string specifies the public key algorithm to be used. This switch
utilizes the Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) public key algorithm and the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), specified here as the DHE DSS Diffie-Hellman (DHE) public key algorithm. This is the first authentication process between client and host as they â€śexchange keysâ€ť in looking for a match and therefore authentication to be accepted to negotiate encryptions on the following level.
â€˘ Encryption: The second part of the ciphersuite that includes the encryption used for encrypting the messages sent
between client and host. The Switch supports two types of cryptology algorithms: â€“ Stream Ciphers â€“ There are two types of stream ciphers on the Switch, RC4 with 40-bit keys and RC4 with 128-bit keys. These keys are used to encrypt messages and need to be consistent between client and host for optimal use.
â€“ CBC Block Ciphers â€“ CBC refers to Cipher Block Chaining, which means that a portion of the previously
encrypted block of encrypted text is used in the encryption of the current block. The Switch supports the 3DES EDE encryption code defined by the Data Encryption Standard (DES) to create the encrypted text.
â€˘ Hash Algorithm: This part of the ciphersuite allows the user to choose a message digest function which will
determine a Message Authentication Code. This Message Authentication Code will be encrypted with a sent message to provide integrity and prevent against replay attacks. The Switch supports two hash algorithms, MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm).
These three parameters are uniquely assembled in four choices on the Switch to create a three-layered encryption code for secure communication between the server and the host. The user may implement any one or combination of the ciphersuites available, yet different ciphersuites will affect the security level and the performance of the secured connection. The information included in the ciphersuites is not included with the Switch and requires downloading from a third source in a file form called a certificate. This function of the Switch cannot be executed without the presence and implementation of the certificate file and can be downloaded to the Switch by utilizing a TFTP server. The Switch supports SSLv3. Other versions of SSL may not be compatible with this Switch and may cause problems upon authentication and transfer of messages from client to host. Configuration
This window will allow the user to enable SSL on the Switch and implement any one or combination of listed ciphersuites on the Switch. A ciphersuite is a security string that determines the exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption algorithms and key sizes to be used for an authentication session. The Switch possesses four possible ciphersuites for the SSL function, which are all enabled by default. To utilize a particular ciphersuite, disable the unwanted ciphersuites, leaving the desired one for authentication. When the SSL function has been enabled, the web will become disabled. To manage the Switch through the web-based management while utilizing the SSL function, the web browser must support SSL encryption and the header of the URL must begin with https://. (Ex. https://10.90.90.90) Any other method will result in an error and no access can be authorized for the web-based management. To view the following window, click Security > Secure Socket Layer (SSL) > Configuration:
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 10- 19. SSL Configuration Window
To set up the SSL function on the Switch, configure the following parameters and click Apply. Parameter Description Status
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the SSL status on the switch. The default is Disabled. RSA with RC4 128
This ciphersuite combines the RSA key exchange, stream cipher RC4 encryption with MD5
128-bit keys and the MD5 Hash Algorithm. Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable this ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default. RSA with 3DES EDE
This ciphersuite combines the RSA key exchange, CBC Block Cipher 3DES_EDE CBC SHA
encryption and the SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable this ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default. RSA EXPORT with
This ciphersuite combines the RSA Export key exchange and stream cipher RC4 RC4 40 MD5
encryption with 40-bit keys. Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable this ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default.
NOTE: Certain implementations concerning the function and configuration of SSL are not available on the web-based management of this Switch and need to be configured using the command line interface. For more information on SSL and its functions, see the DGS-3048 Command Line Interface ReferenceManual, located on the documentation CD of this
NOTE: Enabling the SSL command will disable the web-based switch management. To log on to the Switch again, the header of the URL must begin with https://. Entering anything else into the address field of the web
browser will result in an error and no authentication will be granted.
Secure Shell (SSH)
SSH is an abbreviation of Secure Shell, which is a program allowing secure remote login and secure network services over an insecure network. It allows a secure login to remote host computers, a safe method of executing commands on a remote end node, and will provide secure encrypted and authenticated communication between two non-trusted hosts. SSH, with its array of unmatched security features is an essential tool in todayâ€™s networking environment. It is a powerful guardian against numerous existing security hazards that now threaten network communications.
94 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
The steps required to use the SSH protocol for secure communication between a remote PC (the SSH client) and the Switch (the SSH server) are as follows:
1. Create a user account with admin-level access using the User Accounts window in the Administration folder.
This is identical to creating any other admin-level User Account on the Switch, including specifying a password. This password is used to logon to the Switch, once a secure communication path has been established using the SSH protocol.
2. Configure the User Account to use a specified authorization method to identify users that are allowed to establish
SSH connections with the Switch using the Current Accounts window (Security > Secure Shell (SSH) > SSH User Authentication). There are three choices for the method SSH will use to authorize the user: HostBased, Password, and Public Key. Otherwise choose the the fourth option, None.
3. Configure the encryption algorithm that SSH will use to encrypt and decrypt messages sent between the SSH client
and the SSH server, using the Encryption Algorithm window.
4. Finally, enable SSH on the Switch using the SSH Configuration window.
After completing the preceding steps, a SSH Client on a remote PC can be configured to manage the Switch using a secure, in band connection. SSH Configuration
The following window is used to configure and view settings for the SSH server and can be opened by clicking Security > Secure Shell (SSH) > SSH Configuration:
Figure 10- 20. Current SSH Configuration Settings Window
To configure the SSH server on the Switch, modify the following parameters and click Apply: Parameter Description SSH Server Status
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable SSH on the Switch. The default is Disabled. Port (1-65535)
The TCP port number currently being utilized by the Switch to connect to the SSH server. The "well-known" TCP port for SSH management is 22. SSH Algorithm
This window allows the configuration of the desired types of SSH algorithms used for authentication encryption. There are three categories of algorithms listed and specific algorithms of each may be enabled or disabled by using their corresponding pull-down menus. All algorithms are enabled by default. To open the following window, click Security > Secure Shell (SSH) > SSH Algorithm:
95 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 10- 21. Encryption Algorithm Window
The following algorithms may be set: Parameter Description Encryption Algorithm 3DES-CBC
Triple Data Encryption Standard encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. Blow-fish CBC
Blowfish encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled. AES128-CBC
Advanced Encryption Standard AES128 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. AES192-CBC
Advanced Encryption Standard AES192 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. AES256-CBC
Advanced Encryption Standard AES-256 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. ARC4
Arcfour encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. Cast128-CBC
Cast128 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. Twofish128
Twofish128 encryption algorithm. Twofish192
Twofish192 encryption algorithm.
96 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Twofish256
Twofish256 encryption algorithm.
Data Integrity Algorithm HMAC-SHA1
HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the Secure Hash algorithm. HMAC-MD5
HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the MD5 Message Digest encryption algorithm.
Public Key Algorithm HMAC-RSA
HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the RSA encryption algorithm. HMAC-DSA
HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) encryption.
Authentication Algorithm Public Key
This field may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use a publickey configuration set on a SSH server, for authentication. This field is Enabled by default.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
97 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual 11 Monitoring The fourth Web Manager main folder is Monitoring and includes the following windows and sub-folders: Port Utilization, Packets, Errors, Size, MAC Address, Switch History Log, IGMP Snooping Group, IGMP Snooping Forwarding, VLAN Status, Router Port, Session Table, and Port Access Control, as well as secondary windows. CPU Utilization
The CPU Utilization window displays the percentage of the CPU utilization. The utilization value can vary between 0 and 100. To view the CPU utilization, open the Monitoring folder and then click the CPU Utilization link
Figure 11-1. Utilization Window
The following fields can be set: Parameter Description Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default value is one second. Record Number
Select the number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is 200.
98 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Utilization
The percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on the port. Port Utilization
The Utilization window displays the percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on the port. To view the port utilization, open the Monitoring folder and then click the Port Utilization link:
Figure 11-2. Utilization Window
The following fields can be set: Parameter Description Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default value is one second. Record Number
Select the number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is 200.
99 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Utilization
The percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on the port. Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Utilization. Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
Click Apply to implement your changes. Packets
The Web Manager allows various packet statistics to be viewed as either a line graph or a table. Six windows are offered. Received (RX)
Click the Received (RX) link in the Packets folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of packets received on the Switch.
Figure 11-3. Rx Packets Analysis window (line graph for Bytes and Packets)
100 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual UMB Cast (RX)
Click the UMB Cast (RX) link in the Packets folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of UMB cast packets received on the Switch.
Figure 11-4. Rx Packets Analysis Window (line graph for Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Packets)
To view the UMB Cast Table, click the View Table link, which will show the following table:
101 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Transmitted (TX)
Click the Transmitted (TX) link in the Packets folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of packets transmitted from the Switch.
Figure 11-5. Tx Packets Analysis Window (line graph for Bytes and Packets)
102 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Size
The Web Manager allows packets received by the Switch, arranged in six groups and classed by size, to be viewed as either a line graph or a table. Two windows are offered.
103 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Router Port
This displays the Switch's ports that are currently configured as router ports. A router port configured by a user (using the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a static router port, designated by an S. A router port that is dynamically configured by the Switch is designated by D. To view the following window, open the Monitoring folder and click the Browse Router Port link.
Figure 11-7. Browse Router Port Window Session Table
Figure 11-8. Current Session Table Window
This window displays a list of all the users that are currently logged-in.
104 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Port Access Control RADIUS Authentication
Figure 11-9. RADIUS Authentication Window MAC Address
This allows the Switch's dynamic MAC address forwarding table to be viewed. When the Switch learns an association between a MAC address and a port number, it makes an entry into its forwarding table. These entries are then used to forward packets through the Switch. To view the MAC Address forwarding table, from the Monitoring menu, click the MAC Address link:
105 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 11-10. MAC Address Table Window
The following fields can be viewed or set: Parameter Description VLAN ID
Enter a VLAN ID for the forwarding table to be browsed by. MAC Address
Enter a MAC address for the forwarding table to be browsed by. Find
Allows the user to move to a sector of the database corresponding to a user defined port, VLAN, or MAC address. VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN the port is a member of. MAC Address
The MAC address entered into the address table. Port
The port that the MAC address above corresponds to. Learned
How the Switch discovered the MAC address. The possible entries are Dynamic, Self, and Static. Next
Click this button to view the next page of the address table. View All Entry
Clicking this button will allow the user to view all entries of the address table. Delete All Entry
Clicking this button will allow the user to delete all entries of the address table.
106 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual IGMP Snooping Group
IGMP Snooping allows the Switch to read the Multicast Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from IGMP packets that pass through the Switch. The number of IGMP reports that were snooped is displayed in the Reports field. To view the IGMP Snooping Table, click IGMP Snooping Group in the Monitoring menu:
Figure 11-11. IGMP Snooping Table Window
The user may search theIGMP Snooping Tableby VLAN ID (VID) by entering the VID in the top left hand corner and clicking Search. The following field can be viewed: Parameter Description VLAN ID
The VLAN ID (VID) of the multicast group. Multicast Group
The IP address of the multicast group. MAC Address
The MAC address of the multicast group. Queries
These are the ports where the IGMP packets were snooped are displayed.
NOTE: To configure IGMP snooping for the DGS-3048, go to the Configuration folder and select IGMP Snooping. Configuration and other information concerning IGMP snooping may be found in this manual under
IGMP. IGMP Snooping Forwarding
This window will display the current IGMP snooping forwarding table entries currently configured on the Switch. To view the following screen, open the Monitoring folder and click the IGMP Snooping Forwarding link.
107 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Figure 11-12. IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table Window
The user may search the IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table by VID clicking the top left hand corner Search button. The following field can be viewed: Parameter Description VLAN ID
The VLAN ID (VID) of the multicast group. Multicast Group
The IP address of the multicast group. MAC Address
The MAC address of the multicast group. Port Map
These are the ports where the IGMP packets were snooped are displayed. Switch History Log
The Web manager allows the Switch's history log, as compiled by the Switch's management agent, to be viewed. To view the Switch history log, open the Monitoring folder and click the Switch Log link
Figure 11-13. Switch History Window
The Switch can record event information in its own logs, to designated SNMP trap receiving stations, and to the PC connected to the console manager. Click Next to go to the next page of the Switch History Log. Clicking Clear will allow the user to clear the Switch History Log. The information is described as follows:
108 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual Parameter Description Sequence
A counter incremented whenever an entry to the Switch's history log is made. The table displays the last entry (highest sequence number) first. Time
Displays the time in days, hours, and minutes since the Switch was last restarted. Log Text
Displays text describing the event that triggered the history log entry. Reset
The following window is used to reset the Switch to the default settings.
The following window is used to restart the Switch. All of the configuration information entered from the last time Save Changes was executed, will be lost. Click the Reboot button to restart the Switch.
Figure 11-14. Restart System Window Save Changes
The DGS-3048 has two levels of memory, normal RAM and non-volatile or NV-RAM. Configuration changes are made effective by clicking the Apply button. When this is done, the settings will be immediately applied to the switching software in RAM, and will immediately take effect.
DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
Some settings, though, require you to restart the Switch before they will take effect. Restarting the Switch erases all settings in RAM and reloads the stored settings from the NV-RAM. Thus, it is necessary to save all setting changes to NV-RAM before rebooting the Switch. To retain any configuration changes permanently, click the Save Changes link. The following window will appear:
Figure 11- 15. Save Configuration Window
Click the Save Configuration button to save the current Switch configuration in NV-RAM. The following dialog box will confirm that the configuration has been saved:
Figure 11- 16. Save Configuration Confirmation Dialog box
Click the OK button to continue. Once the Switch configuration settings have been saved to NV-RAM, they become the default settings for the Switch. These settings will be used every time the Switch is rebooted. Logout
Use the Logout page to logout of the Switch's Web-based management agent by clicking on the Logout button.
Figure 11- 17. Logout Web Setups Window
110 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual A Technical Specifications Performance Transmission Method
Store-and-forward RAM Buffer
512Kbytes per device Packet Filtering/ Forwarding Rate
Full-wire speed for all connections.
1,488,095 pps per port (for 1000Mbps) MAC Address Learning
Automatic update. Supports 8K MAC address. Priority Queues
8 Priority Queues per port. Forwarding Table Age Time
Max age: 10â€“1000000 seconds.
Default = 300.
Physical and Environmental AC Inputs
100 â€“ 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz (internal universal power supply) Power Consumption
45 watts maximum DC Fans
2 built-in 40 x 40 x 10 mm fans Operating Temperature
0 to 40 degrees Celsius (32 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit) Storage Temperature
-40 to 70 degrees Celsius (-40 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit) Humidity
Storage: 5% to 95% non-condensing Dimensions
441mm (W) x 309mm (D) x 44mm (H), 19-inch rack-mount width 1U height Weight
3.8 kg (8.38 lb) EMI
FCC, CE Mark Safety
IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T Ethernet
IEEE 802.3u 100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet
IEEE 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN
111 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual General
IEEE 802.1P Tagged Packets
IEEE 802.3ab 1000BASE-T
IEEE 802.3x Full-duplex Flow Control
ANSI/IEEE 802.3 NWay auto-negotiation Protocols
CSMA/CD Data Transfer Rates
Half-duplex Full-duplex Ethernet:
20 Mbps Fast Ethernet:
200 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet:
2000 Mbps (Full duplex only) Topology
112 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual B Cable Lengths Use the following table to as a guide for the maximum cable lengths: Standard Media Type Maximum Distance Mini GBIC
DEM-310GT: SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-LX, Single-mode fiber
DEM-311GT: SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-SX, Multi-mode fiber
DEM-314GT: SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-LHX, Single-mode fiber
DEM-315GT: SFP Transceiver for 1000BASE-ZX, Single-mode fiber
Category 5e UTP Cable
Category 5 UTP Cable
(1000 Mbps) 100BASE-TX
Category 5 UTP Cable (100 Mbps)
Category 3 UTP Cable (10 Mbps)
113 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual C Glossary 1000BASE-T â€“ A specification for Gigabit Ethernet over copper wire (IEEE Std. 802.3ab). The standard defines 1 Gb/s data transfer over distances of up to 100 meters using four pairs of CAT-5 balanced copper cabling and a 5-level coding scheme. Its benefits include compatibility with existing network protocols (i.e. IP, IPX, AppleTalk), existing applications, Network Operating Systems, network management platforms and applications. 100BASE-TX â€“ 100Mbps Ethernet implementation over Category 5 and Type 1 twisted pair cabling. 10BASE-T â€“ The IEEE 802.3 specification for Ethernet over Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cabling. aging â€“ The automatic removal of dynamic entries from the Switch Database which have timed-out and are no longer valid. ATM â€“ Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A connection oriented transmission protocol based on fixed length cells (packets). ATM is designed to carry a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data and video signals. auto-negotiation â€“ A feature on a port that allows it to advertise its capabilities for speed, duplex and flow control. When connected to an end station that also supports auto-negotiation, the link can self-detect its optimum operating setup. backbone â€“ The part of a network used as the primary path for transporting traffic backbone port â€“ A port that does not learn device addresses, and receives all frames with an unknown address. Backbone ports are normally used to connect the Switch to the backbone of your network. Note that backbone ports were formerly known as designated downlink ports. bandwidth â€“ Information capacity, measured in bits per second, that a channel can transmit. The bandwidth of Ethernet is 10Mbps and the bandwidth of Fast Ethernet is 100Mbps. baud rate â€“ The switching speed of a line. Also known as line speed between network segments. bridge â€“ A device that interconnects local or remote networks no matter what higher level protocols are involved. Bridges form a single logical network, centralizing network administration. broadcast â€“ A message sent to all destination devices on the network. broadcast storm â€“ Multiple simultaneous broadcasts that typically absorb available network bandwidth and can cause network failure. console port â€“ The port on the Switch accepting a terminal. It changes the parallel arrangement of data within computers to the serial form used on data transmission links. This port is most often used for dedicated local management. CSMA/CD â€“ Channel access method used by Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards in which devices transmit only after finding the data channel clear for some period of time. When two devices transmit simultaneously, a collision occurs and the colliding devices delay their retransmissions for a random amount of time. data center switching â€“ The point of aggregation within a corporate network where a Switch provides high- performance access to server farms, a high-speed backbone connection and a control point for network management and security. Ethernet â€“ A LAN specification developed jointly by Xerox, Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet networks operate at 10Mbps using CSMA/CD to run over cabling. Fast Ethernet â€“ 100Mbps technology based on the Ethernet/CD network access method. Flow Control â€“ (IEEE 802.3z) A means of holding packets back at the transmit port of the connected end station. Prevents packet loss at a congested Switch port. forwarding The process of sending a packet toward its destination by an internetworking device. full duplex â€“ A system that allows packets to be transmitted and received at the same time and, in effect, doubles the potential throughput of a link. GBIC â€“ Gigabit interface converter, a transceiver that converts serial electric signals to serial optical signals and vice versa. In networking, a GBIC is used to interface a fiber optic system with an Ethernet system, such as Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet.
114 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual
A GBIC allows designers to design one type of device that can be adapted for either optical or copper applications. GBICs also are hot-swappable, which adds to the ease of upgrading electro-optical communication networks. half-duplex â€“ A system that allows packets to be transmitted and received, but not at the same time. Contrasts with full-duplex. IP address â€“ Internet Protocol address. A unique identifier for a device attached to a network using TCP/IP. The address is written as four octets separated with full-stops (periods), and is made up of a network section, an optional subnet section and a host section. IPX â€“ Internetwork Packet Exchange. A protocol allowing communication in a NetWare network. LAN â€“ Local Area Network. A network of connected computing resources (such as PCs, printers, servers) covering a relatively small geographic area (usually not larger than a floor or building). Characterized by high data rates and low error rates. latency â€“ The delay between the time a device receives a packet and the time the packet is forwarded out of the destination port. line speed â€“ See baud rate. main port â€“ The port in a resilient link that carries data traffic in normal operating conditions. MDI â€“ Medium Dependent Interface. An Ethernet port connection where the transmitter of one device is connected to the receiver of another device. MDI-X â€“ Medium Dependent Interface Cross-over. An Ethernet port connection where the internal transmit and receive lines are crossed. MIB â€“ Management Information Base. Stores a deviceâ€™s management characteristics and parameters. MIBs are used by the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to contain attributes of their managed systems. The Switch contains its own internal MIB. multicast â€“ Single packets copied to a specific subset of network addresses. These addresses are specified in the destination-address field of the packet. protocol â€“ A set of rules for communication between devices on a network. The rules dictate format, timing, sequencing and error control. resilient link â€“ A pair of ports that can be configured so that one will take over data transmission should the other fail. See also main port and standby port. RJ-45 â€“ Standard 8-wire connectors for IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T networks. RMON â€“ Remote Monitoring. Subset of SNMP MIB II that allows monitoring and management capabilities by addressing up to ten different groups of information. RPS â€“ Redundant Power System. A device that provides a backup source of power when connected to the Switch. server farm â€“ A cluster of servers in a centralized location serving a large user population. SLIP â€“ Serial Line Internet Protocol. A protocol that allows IP to run over a serial line connection. SNMP â€“ Simple Network Management Protocol. A protocol originally designed to be used in managing TCP/IP internets. SNMP is presently implemented on a wide range of computers and networking equipment and may be used to manage many aspects of network and end station operation. Spanning Tree Protocol â€“ (STP)A bridge-based system for providing fault tolerance on networks. STP works by allowing you to implement parallel paths for network traffic, and ensure that redundant paths are disabled when the main paths are operational and enabled if the main paths fail. stack â€“ A group of network devices that are integrated to form a single logical device. standby port â€“ The port in a resilient link that will take over data transmission if the main port in the link fails. Switch â€“ A device that filters, forwards and floods packets based on the packetâ€™s destination address. The Switch learns the addresses associated with each Switch port and builds tables based on this information to be used for the switching decision. TCP/IP â€“ A layered set of communications protocols providing Telnet terminal emulation, FTP file transfer, and other services for communication among a wide range of computer equipment. Telnet â€“ A TCP/IP application protocol that provides virtual terminal service, allowing a user log in to another computer system and access a host as if the user were connected directly to the host. TFTP â€“ Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Allows you to transfer files (such as software upgrades) from a remote device using your Switchâ€™s local management capabilities. UDP â€“ User Datagram Protocol. An Internet standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a datagram to an application program on another device.
115 DGS-3048 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Manual VLAN â€“ Virtual LAN. A group of location- and topology-independent devices that communicate as if they are on a common physical LAN. VLT â€“ Virtual LAN Trunk. A Switch-to-Switch link which carries traffic for all the VLANs on each Switch. VT100 â€“ A type of terminal that uses ASCII characters. VT100 screens have a text-based appearance.
116 Warranty and Registration Information (All countries and regions excluding USA) Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise
Bitte lesen Sie sich diese Hinweise sorgfĂ¤ltig durch. Heben Sie diese Anleitung fĂĽr den spĂ¤tern Gebrauch auf. Vor jedem Reinigen ist das GerĂ¤t vom Stromnetz zu trennen. Vervenden Sie keine FlĂĽssig- oder Aerosolreiniger. Am besten dient ein angefeuchtetes Tuch zur Reinigung. Um eine BeschĂ¤digung des GerĂ¤tes zu vermeiden sollten Sie nur ZubehĂ¶rteile verwenden, die vom Hersteller zugelassen sind. Das GerĂ¤t is vor Feuchtigkeit zu schĂĽtzen. Bei der Aufstellung des GerĂ¤tes ist auf sichern Stand zu achten. Ein Kippen oder Fallen kĂ¶nnte Verletzungen hervorrufen. Verwenden Sie nur sichere Standorte und beachten Sie die Aufstellhinweise des Herstellers. Die BelĂĽftungsĂ¶ffnungen dienen zur Luftzirkulation die das GerĂ¤t vor Ăśberhitzung schĂĽtzt. Sorgen Sie dafĂĽr, daĂź diese Ă–ffnungen nicht abgedeckt werden. Beachten Sie beim AnschluĂź an das Stromnetz die AnschluĂźwerte. Die NetzanschluĂźsteckdose muĂź aus GrĂĽnden der elektrischen Sicherheit einen Schutzleiterkontakt haben. Verlegen Sie die NetzanschluĂźleitung so, daĂź niemand darĂĽber fallen kann. Es sollete auch nichts auf der Leitung abgestellt werden. Alle Hinweise und Warnungen die sich am GerĂ¤ten befinden sind zu beachten. Wird das GerĂ¤t ĂĽber einen lĂ¤ngeren Zeitraum nicht benutzt, sollten Sie es vom Stromnetz trennen. Somit wird im Falle einer Ăśberspannung eine BeschĂ¤digung vermieden. Durch die LĂĽftungsĂ¶ffnungen dĂĽrfen niemals GegenstĂ¤nde oder FlĂĽssigkeiten in das GerĂ¤t gelangen. Dies kĂ¶nnte einen Brand bzw. Elektrischen Schlag auslĂ¶sen. Ă–ffnen Sie niemals das GerĂ¤t. Das GerĂ¤t darf aus GrĂĽnden der elektrischen Sicherheit nur von authorisiertem Servicepersonal geĂ¶ffnet werden. Wenn folgende Situationen auftreten ist das GerĂ¤t vom Stromnetz zu trennen und von einer qualifizierten Servicestelle zu ĂĽberprĂĽfen:
a) Netzkabel oder Netzstecker sint beschĂ¤digt. b) FlĂĽssigkeit ist in das GerĂ¤t eingedrungen. c) Das GerĂ¤t war Feuchtigkeit ausgesetzt. d) Wenn das GerĂ¤t nicht der Bedienungsanleitung ensprechend funktioniert oder Sie mit Hilfe dieser Anleitung keine
e) Das GerĂ¤t ist gefallen und/oder das GehĂ¤use ist beschĂ¤digt. f) Wenn das GerĂ¤t deutliche Anzeichen eines Defektes aufweist.
Bei Reparaturen dĂĽrfen nur Orginalersatzteile bzw. den Orginalteilen entsprechende Teile verwendet werden. Der Einsatz von ungeeigneten Ersatzteilen kann eine weitere BeschĂ¤digung hervorrufen. Wenden Sie sich mit allen Fragen die Service und Repartur betreffen an Ihren Servicepartner. Somit stellen Sie die Betriebssicherheit des GerĂ¤tes sicher. Zum NetzanschluĂź dieses GerĂ¤tes ist eine geprĂĽfte Leitung zu verwenden, FĂĽr einen Nennstrom bis 6A und einem GerĂ¤tegewicht grĹ‘Ăźer 3kg ist eine Leitung nicht leichter als H05VV-F, 3G, 0.75mm2 einzusetzen. WARRANTIES EXCLUSIVE IF THE D-LINK PRODUCT DOES NOT OPERATE AS WARRANTED ABOVE, THE CUSTOMER'S SOLE REMEDY SHALL BE, AT D-LINK'S OPTION, REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT. THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN FACT OR BY OPERATION OF LAW, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. D-LINK NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR IT ANY OTHER LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE OR USE OF D-LINK'S PRODUCTS. D-LINK SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF ITS TESTING AND EXAMINATION DISCLOSE THAT THE ALLEGED DEFECT IN THE PRODUCT DOES NOT EXIST OR WAS CAUSED BY THE CUSTOMER'S OR ANY THIRD PERSON'S MISUSE, NEGLECT, IMPROPER INSTALLATION OR TESTING, UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS TO REPAIR, OR ANY OTHER CAUSE BEYOND THE RANGE OF THE INTENDED USE, OR BY ACCIDENT, FIRE, LIGHTNING OR OTHER HAZARD. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
IN NO EVENT WILL D-LINK BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING LOSS OF DATA, LOSS OF PROFITS, COST OF COVER OR OTHER INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INDIRECT DAMAGES ARISING OUT THE INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, USE, PERFORMANCE, FAILURE OR INTERRUPTION OF A D- LINK PRODUCT, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. THIS LIMITATION WILL APPLY EVEN IF D-LINK HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. IF YOU PURCHASED A D-LINK PRODUCT IN THE UNITED STATES, SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. Limited Warranty Hardware: D-Link warrants each of its hardware products to be free from defects in workmanship and materials under normal use and service for a period commencing on the date of purchase from D-Link or its Authorized Reseller and extending for the length of time stipulated by the Authorized Reseller or D-Link Branch Office nearest to the place of purchase. This Warranty applies on the condition that the product Registration Card is filled out and returned to a D-Link office within ninety (90) days of purchase. A list of D-Link offices is provided at the back of this manual, together with a copy of the Registration Card. If the product proves defective within the applicable warranty period, D-Link will provide repair or replacement of the product. D-Link shall have the sole discretion whether to repair or replace, and replacement product may be new or reconditioned. Replacement product shall be of equivalent or better specifications, relative to the defective product, but need not be identical. Any product or part repaired by D-Link pursuant to this warranty shall have a warranty period of not less than 90 days, from date of such repair, irrespective of any earlier expiration of original warranty period. When D-Link provides replacement, then the defective product becomes the property of D-Link. Warranty service may be obtained by contacting a D-Link office within the applicable warranty period, and requesting a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number. If a Registration Card for the product in question has not been returned to D-Link, then a proof of purchase (such as a copy of the dated purchase invoice) must be provided. If Purchaser's circumstances require special handling of warranty correction, then at the time of requesting RMA number, Purchaser may also propose special procedure as may be suitable to the case. After an RMA number is issued, the defective product must be packaged securely in the original or other suitable shipping package to ensure that it will not be damaged in transit, and the RMA number must be prominently marked on the outside of the package. The package must be mailed or otherwise shipped to D-Link with all costs of mailing/shipping/insurance prepaid. D-Link shall never be responsible for any software, firmware, information, or memory data of Purchaser contained in, stored on, or integrated with any product returned to D-Link pursuant to this warranty. Any package returned to D-Link without an RMA number will be rejected and shipped back to Purchaser at Purchaser's expense, and D-Link reserves the right in such a case to levy a reasonable handling charge in addition mailing or shipping costs. Software: Warranty service for software products may be obtained by contacting a D-Link office within the applicable warranty period. A list of D-Link offices is provided at the back of this manual, together with a copy of the Registration Card. If a Registration Card for the product in question has not been returned to a D-Link office, then a proof of purchase (such as a copy of the dated purchase invoice) must be provided when requesting warranty service. The term "purchase" in this software warranty refers to the purchase transaction and resulting license to use such software. D-Link warrants that its software products will perform in substantial conformance with the applicable product documentation provided by D-Link with such software product, for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase from D-Link or its Authorized Reseller. D-Link warrants the magnetic media, on which D-Link provides its software product, against failure during the same warranty period. This warranty applies to purchased software, and to replacement software provided by D-Link pursuant to this warranty, but shall not apply to any update or replacement which may be provided for download via the Internet, or to any update which may otherwise be provided free of charge. D-Link's sole obligation under this software warranty shall be to replace any defective software product with product which substantially conforms to D-Link's applicable product documentation. Purchaser assumes responsibility for the selection of appropriate application and system/platform software and associated reference materials. D-Link makes no warranty that its software products will work in combination with any hardware, or any application or system/platform software product provided by any third party, excepting only such products as are expressly represented, in D-Link's applicable product documentation as being compatible. D-Link's obligation under this warranty shall be a reasonable effort to provide compatibility, but D-Link shall have no obligation to provide compatibility when there is fault in the third-party hardware or software. D-Link makes no warranty that operation of its software products will be uninterrupted or absolutely error-free, and no warranty that all defects in the software product, within or without the scope of D-Link's applicable product documentation, will be corrected.
Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, D-Link Systems, Inc. (â€śD-Linkâ€ť) provides this Limited Warranty: â€˘
Only to the person or entity that originally purchased the product from D-Link or its authorized reseller or distributor, and
Only for products purchased and delivered within the fifty states of the United States, the District of Columbia, U.S. Possessions or Protectorates, U.S. Military Installations, or addresses with an APO or FPO. Limited Warranty: D-Link warrants that the hardware portion of the D-Link product described below (â€śHardwareâ€ť) will be free from material defects in workmanship and materials under normal use from the date of original retail purchase of the product, for the period set forth below (â€śWarranty Periodâ€ť), except as otherwise stated herein. Limited Lifetime Warranty for the product is defined as follows: â€˘
Hardware: For as long as the original customer/end user owns the product, or five (5) years after product discontinuance, whichever occurs first (excluding power supplies and fans)
Power supplies and fans: Three (3) Year
Spare parts and spare kits: Ninety (90) days
The customer's sole and exclusive remedy and the entire liability of D-Link and its suppliers under this Limited Warranty will be, at D- Linkâ€™s option, to repair or replace the defective Hardware during the Warranty Period at no charge to the original owner or to refund the actual purchase price paid. Any repair or replacement will be rendered by D-Link at an Authorized D-Link Service Office. The replacement hardware need not be new or have an identical make, model or part. D-Link may, at its option, replace the defective Hardware or any part thereof with any reconditioned product that D-Link reasonably determines is substantially equivalent (or superior) in all material respects to the defective Hardware. Repaired or replacement hardware will be warranted for the remainder of the original Warranty Period or ninety (90) days, whichever is longer, and is subject to the same limitations and exclusions. If a material defect is incapable of correction, or if D-Link determines that it is not practical to repair or replace the defective Hardware, the actual price paid by the original purchaser for the defective Hardware will be refunded by D-Link upon return to D-Link of the defective Hardware. All Hardware or part thereof that is replaced by D-Link, or for which the purchase price is refunded, shall become the property of D-Link upon replacement or refund. Limited Software Warranty: D-Link warrants that the software portion of the product (â€śSoftwareâ€ť) will substantially conform to D- Linkâ€™s then current functional specifications for the Software, as set forth in the applicable documentation, from the date of original retail purchase of the Software for a period of ninety (90) days (â€śSoftware Warranty Periodâ€ť), provided that the Software is properly installed on approved hardware and operated as contemplated in its documentation. D-Link further warrants that, during the Software Warranty Period, the magnetic media on which D-Link delivers the Software will be free of physical defects. The customer's sole and exclusive remedy and the entire liability of D-Link and its suppliers under this Limited Warranty will be, at D-Linkâ€™s option, to replace the non- conforming Software (or defective media) with software that substantially conforms to D-Linkâ€™s functional specifications for the Software or to refund the portion of the actual purchase price paid that is attributable to the Software. Except as otherwise agreed by D-Link in writing, the replacement Software is provided only to the original licensee, and is subject to the terms and conditions of the license granted by D-Link for the Software. Replacement Software will be warranted for the remainder of the original Warranty Period and is subject to the same limitations and exclusions. If a material non-conformance is incapable of correction, or if D-Link determines in its sole discretion that it is not practical to replace the non-conforming Software, the price paid by the original licensee for the non- conforming Software will be refunded by D-Link; provided that the non-conforming Software (and all copies thereof) is first returned to D-Link. The license granted respecting any Software for which a refund is given automatically terminates. Non-Applicability of Warranty: The Limited Warranty provided hereunder for Hardware and Software portions of D-Link's products will not be applied to and does not cover any refurbished product and any product purchased through the inventory clearance or liquidation sale or other sales in which D-Link, the sellers, or the liquidators expressly disclaim their warranty obligation pertaining to the product and in that case, the product is being sold "As-Is" without any warranty whatsoever including, without limitation, the Limited Warranty as described herein, notwithstanding anything stated herein to the contrary. Submitting A Claim: The customer shall return the product to the original purchase point based on its return policy. In case the return policy period has expired and the product is within warranty, the customer shall submit a claim to D-Link as outlined below: â€˘
The customer must submit with the product as part of the claim a written description of the Hardware defect or Software nonconformance in sufficient detail to allow D-Link to confirm the same, along with proof of purchase of the product (such as a copy of the dated purchase invoice for the product) if the product is not registered.
The customer must obtain a Case ID Number from D-Link Technical Support at 1-877-453-5465, who will attempt to assist the customer in resolving any suspected defects with the product. If the product is considered defective, the customer must obtain a Return Material Authorization (â€śRMAâ€ť) number by completing the RMA form and entering the assigned Case ID Number at https://rma.dlink.com/.
After an RMA number is issued, the defective product must be packaged securely in the original or other suitable shipping package to ensure that it will not be damaged in transit, and the RMA number must be prominently marked on the outside of the package. Do not include any manuals or accessories in the shipping package. D-Link will only replace the defective portion of the product and will not ship back any accessories.
The customer is responsible for all in-bound shipping charges to D-Link. No Cash on Delivery (â€śCODâ€ť) is allowed. Products sent COD will either be rejected by D-Link or become the property of D-Link. Products shall be fully insured by the customer and shipped to D-Link Systems, Inc., 17595 Mt. Herrmann, Fountain Valley, CA 92708. D-Link will not be held responsible for any packages that are lost in transit to D-Link. The repaired or replaced packages will be shipped to the customer via UPS Ground or any common carrier selected by D-Link. Return shipping charges shall be prepaid by D-Link if you use an address in the United States, otherwise we will ship the product to you freight collect. Expedited shipping is available upon request and provided shipping charges are prepaid by the customer.
D-Link may reject or return any product that is not packaged and shipped in strict compliance with the foregoing requirements, or for which an RMA number is not visible from the outside of the package. The product owner agrees to pay D-Linkâ€™s reasonable handling and return shipping charges for any product that is not packaged and shipped in accordance with the foregoing requirements, or that is determined by D-Link not to be defective or non-conforming. What Is Not Covered: The Limited Warranty provided herein by D-Link does not cover: Products that, in D-Linkâ€™s judgment, have been subjected to abuse, accident, alteration, modification, tampering, negligence, misuse, faulty installation, lack of reasonable care, repair or service in any way that is not contemplated in the documentation for the product, or if the model or serial number has been altered, tampered with, defaced or removed; Initial installation, installation and removal of the product for repair, and shipping costs; Operational adjustments covered in the operating manual for the product, and normal maintenance; Damage that occurs in shipment, due to act of God, failures due to power surge, and cosmetic damage; Any hardware, software, firmware or other products or services provided by anyone other than D-Link; and Products that have been purchased from inventory clearance or liquidation sales or other sales in which D-Link, the sellers, or the liquidators expressly disclaim their warranty obligation pertaining to the product. While necessary maintenance or repairs on your Product can be performed by any company, we recommend that you use only an Authorized D-Link Service Office. Improper or incorrectly performed maintenance or repair voids this Limited Warranty. Disclaimer of Other Warranties: EXCEPT FOR THE LIMITED WARRANTY SPECIFIED HEREIN, THE PRODUCT IS PROVIDED â€śAS-ISâ€ť WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IF ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY CANNOT BE DISCLAIMED IN ANY TERRITORY WHERE A PRODUCT IS SOLD, THE DURATION OF SUCH IMPLIED WARRANTY SHALL BE LIMITED TO NINETY (90) DAYS. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY COVERED UNDER THE LIMITED WARRANTY PROVIDED HEREIN, THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY, SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT IS WITH THE PURCHASER OF THE PRODUCT. Limitation of Liability: TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, D-LINK IS NOT LIABLE UNDER ANY CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE THEORY FOR ANY LOSS OF USE OF THE PRODUCT, INCONVENIENCE OR DAMAGES OF ANY CHARACTER, WHETHER DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL, LOSS OF REVENUE OR PROFIT, WORK STOPPAGE, COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, FAILURE OF OTHER EQUIPMENT OR COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO WHICH D-LINKâ€™S PRODUCT IS CONNECTED WITH, LOSS OF INFORMATION OR DATA CONTAINED IN, STORED ON, OR INTEGRATED WITH ANY PRODUCT RETURNED TO D-LINK FOR WARRANTY SERVICE) RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THE PRODUCT, RELATING TO WARRANTY SERVICE, OR ARISING OUT OF ANY BREACH OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY, EVEN IF D-LINK HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE SOLE REMEDY FOR A BREACH OF THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY IS REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OR REFUND OF THE DEFECTIVE OR NON-CONFORMING PRODUCT. THE MAXIMUM LIABILITY OF D-LINK UNDER THIS WARRANTY IS LIMITED TO THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE PRODUCT COVERED BY THE WARRANTY. THE FOREGOING EXPRESS WRITTEN WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND ARE IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER WARRANTIES OR REMEDIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY. Governing Law: This Limited Warranty shall be governed by the laws of the State of California. Some states do not allow exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, or limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the foregoing limitations and exclusions may not apply. This Limited Warranty provides specific legal rights and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state. Trademarks:D-Link is a registered trademark of D-Link Systems, Inc. Other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Copyright Statement:No part of this publication or documentation accompanying this product may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make any derivative such as translation, transformation, or adaptation without permission from D-Link Corporation/D-Link Systems, Inc., as stipulated by the United States Copyright Act of 1976 and any amendments thereto. Contents are subject to change without prior notice. Copyright 2005 by D-Link Corporation/D-Link Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CE Mark Warning:This is a Class A product. In a residential environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures. FCC Statement: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a commercial installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communication. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. Operation of this equipment in a residential environment is likely to cause harmful interference to radio or television reception. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: â€˘
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
For detailed warranty information applicable to products purchased outside the United States, please contact the corresponding local D- Link office.
Register your D-Link product online at http://support.dlink.com/register/ Product registration is entirely voluntary and failure to complete or return this form will not diminish your warranty rights.
Trademarks Copyright 2005 D-Link Corporation. Contents subject to change without prior notice. D-Link is a registered trademark of D-Link Corporation/ D-Link Systems Inc. All other trademarks belong to their respective proprietors. Copyright statement No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make an derivative such as translation, transformation, or adaptation without permission from DLink Corporation/ D-Link Systems Inc as stipulated by the United States Copyright Act of 1976. CE EMI class A warning This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures. D-Link Europe Limited Product Warranty General Terms The Limited Product Warranty set forth below is given by D-LINK (Europe) Ltd. (herein referred to as "D-LINK"). This Limited Product Warranty is only effective upon presentation of the proof of purchase. Upon further request by D-LINK, this warranty card has to be presented, too. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS LIMITED WARRANTY, D-LINK MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. D-LINK EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES NOT STATED IN THIS LIMITED WARRANTY. ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES THAT MAY BE IMPOSED BY LAW ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE LIMITED WARRANTY PERIOD. SOME STATES OR COUNTRIES DO NOT ALLOW A LIMITATION ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS OR THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS. IN SUCH STATES OR COUNTRIES, SOME EXCLUSIONS OR LIMITATIONS OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS LIMITED WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS. YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS THAT MAY VARY FROM STATE TO STATE OR FROM COUNTRY TO COUNTRY. YOU ARE ADVISED TO CONSULT APPLICABLE STATE OR COUNTRY LAWS FOR A FULL DETERMINATION OF YOUR RIGHTS. This limited warranty applies to D-LINK branded hardware products (collectively referred to in this limited warranty as â€śD-LINK Hardware Productsâ€ť) sold by from D-LINK (Europe) Ltd., its worldwide subsidiaries, affiliates, authorized resellers, or country distributors (collectively referred to in this limited warranty as â€śD-LINKâ€ť) with this limited warranty. The Term â€śD-LINK Hardware Productâ€ť is limited to the hardware components and all its internal components including firmware. The term â€śD-LINK Hardware Productâ€ť DOES NOT include any software applications or programs. Geographical Scope of the Limited Product Warranty This Limited Product Warranty is applicable in all European Countries as listed in the addendum â€śEuropean Countries for D-LINK Limited Product Warrantyâ€ť. The term â€śEuropean Countriesâ€ť in this D-LINK Limited Product Warranty only include the countries as listed in this addendum. The Limited Product Warranty will be honored in any country where D-LINK or its authorized service providers offer warranty service subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this Limited Product Warranty. However, warranty service availability and response times may vary from country to country and may also be subject to registration requirements. Limitation of Product Warranty D-LINK warrants that the products described below under normal use are free from material defects in materials and workmanship during the Limited Product Warranty Period set forth below ("Limited Product Warranty Period"), if the product is used and serviced in accordance with the user manual and other documentation provided to the purchaser at the time of purchase (or as amended from time to time). D-LINK does not warrant that the products will operate uninterrupted or error-free or that all deficiencies, errors, defects or non- conformities will be corrected. This warranty shall not apply to problems resulting from: (a) unauthorised alterations or attachments; (b) negligence, abuse or misuse, including failure to operate the product in accordance with specifications or interface requirements; (c) improper handling; (d) failure of goods or services not obtained from D-LINK or not subject to a then-effective D-LINK warranty or maintenance agreement; (e) improper use or storage; or (f) fire, water, acts of God or other catastrophic events. This warranty shall also not apply to any particular product if any D-LINK serial number has been removed or defaced in any way. D-LINK IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR DAMAGE THAT OCCURS AS A RESULT OF YOUR FAILURE TO FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE D-LINK HARDWARE PRODUCT. Limited Product Warranty Period The Limited Product Warranty Period starts on the date of purchase from D-LINK. Your dated sales or delivery receipt, showing the date of purchase of the product, is your proof of the purchase date. You may be required to provide proof of purchase as a condition of receiving warranty service. You are entitled to warranty service according to the terms and conditions of this document if a repair to your D-LINK branded hardware is required within the Limited Product Warranty Period.
This Limited Product Warranty extends only to the original end-user purchaser of this DLINK Hardware Product and is not transferable to anyone who obtains ownership of the DLINKHardware Product from the original end-user purchaser.
Product Type Product Warranty Period
Managed Switches (i.e. switches with built in SNMP agent)(including modules and Five (5) years
All other products
Two (2) years
Spare parts (i.e. External Power Adapters, Fans)
One (1) year
The warranty periods listed above are effective in respect of all D-LINK products sold in European Countries by D-LINK or one of its authorized resellers or distributors from 1st of January 2004. All products sold in European Countries by D-LINK or one of its authorized resellers or distributors before 1st January 2004 carry 5 years warranty, except power supplies, fans and accessories that are provided with 2 year warranty.
The warranty period stated in this card supersedes and replaces the warranty period as stated in the userâ€™s manual or in the purchase contract for the relevant products. For the avoidance of doubt, if you have purchased the relevant D-LINK product as a consumer your statutory rights remain unaffected. Performance of the Limited Product Warranty If a product defect occurs, D-LINKâ€™s sole obligation shall be to repair or replace any defective product free of charge to the original purchaser provided it is returned to an Authorized D-LINK Service Center during the warranty period. Such repair or replacement will be rendered by D-LINK at an Authorized D-LINK Service Center. All component parts or hardware products removed under this limited warranty become the property of D-LINK. The replacement part or product takes on the remaining limited warranty status of the removed part or product. The replacement product need not be new or of an identical make, model or part; D-LINK may in its discretion replace the defective product (or any part thereof) with any reconditioned equivalent (or superior) product in all material respects to the defective product. Proof of purchase may be required by D-LINK. Warrantor D-Link (Europe) Ltd. 4th Floor, Merit House Edgware Road Colindale London NW9 5 AB United Kingdom Telephone: +44-020-8731-5555 Facsimile: +44-020-8731-5511 www.dlink.com
D-Link Europe Limited Produktgarantie Allgemeine Bedingungen Die hierin beschriebene eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie wird durch D-LINK (Europe) Ltd. GewĂ¤hrt (im Folgenden: â€žD-LINKâ€ś). Diese eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie setzt voraus, dass der Kauf des Produkts nachgewiesen wird. Auf Verlangen von D-LINK muss auch dieser Garantieschein vorgelegt werden.
AUSSER IN DEM HIER AUSDRĂśCKLICH BESCHRIEBENEN UMFANG GEWĂ„HRT D-LINK KEINE WEITEREN GARANTIEN, WEDER AUSDRĂśCKLICH NOCH STILLSCHWEIGEND. INSBESONDERE WIRD NICHT STILLSCHWEIGEND EINE GARANTIE FĂśR DIE ALLGEMEINE GEBRAUCHSTAUGLICHKEIT ODER DIE EIGNUNG FĂśR EINEN BESTIMMTEN ZWECK ERKLĂ„RT. D-LINK LEHNT AUSDRĂśCKLICH JEDE GARANTIE AB, DIE ĂśBER DIESE EINGESCHRĂ„NKTE GARANTIE HINAUSGEHT. JEDE GESETZLICH ANGEORDNETE GARANTIE IST AUF DIE LAUFZEIT DER EINGESCHRĂ„NKTEN GARANTIE BESCHRĂ„NKT. IN EINIGEN STAATEN ODER LĂ„NDERN IST DIE ZEITLICHE BESCHRĂ„NKUNG EINER STILLSCHWEIGEND ERKLĂ„RTEN GARANTIE SOWIE AUSSCHLUSS ODER BESCHRĂ„NKUNG VON SCHADENERSATZ FĂśR NEBEN- ODER FOLGESCHĂ„DEN BEIM VERBRAUCHSGĂśTERKAUF UNTERSAGT. SOWEIT SIE IN SOLCHEN STAATEN ODER LĂ„NDERN LEBEN, ENTFALTEN MĂ–GLICHERWEISE EINIGE AUSSCHLĂśSSE ODER EINSCHRĂ„NKUNGEN DIESER EINGESCHRĂ„NKTEN GARANTIE GEGENĂśBER IHNEN KEINE WIRKUNG. DIESE EINGESCHRĂ„NKTE GARANTIE GEWĂ„HRT IHNEN SPEZIFISCHE RECHTE. DARĂśBER HINAUS STEHEN IHNEN MĂ–GLICHERWEISE NOCH WEITERE RECHTE ZU, DIE SICH JEDOCH VON STAAT ZU STAAT ODER VON LAND ZU LAND UNTERSCHEIDEN KĂ–NNEN. UM DEN UMFANG IHRER RECHTE ZU BESTIMMEN, WIRD IHNEN EMPFOHLEN, DIE ANWENDBAREN GESETZE DES JEWEILIGEN STAATES ODER LANDES ZU RATE ZU ZIEHEN.
Diese eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie ist auf Hardware-Produkte der Marke D-LINK (insgesamt im Folgenden: â€žD-LINK Hardware-Produkteâ€ś) anwendbar, die von D-LINK (Europe) Ltd. Oder dessen weltweiten Filialen, Tochtergesellschaften, FachhĂ¤ndlern oder LĂ¤nderdistributoren (insgesamt im Folgenden: â€žD-LINKâ€ś) mit dieser eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie verkauft wurden. Der Begriff â€žD-LINK Hardware-Produkteâ€ť beinhaltet nur Hardwarekomponenten und deren Bestandteile einschlieĂźlich Firmware. Der Begriff â€śD-LINK Hardware-Produkteâ€ś umfasst KEINE Software-Anwendungen oder -programme. RĂ¤umlicher Geltungsbereich der eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie Diese eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie gilt fĂĽr alle genannten europĂ¤ischen Staaten gemĂ¤Ăź dem Anhang â€žEingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie von D-LINK in europĂ¤ischen Staatenâ€ś. Im Rahmen dieser eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie sind mit dem Begriff â€žeuropĂ¤ische Staatenâ€ť nur die im Anhang genannten Staaten gemeint. Die eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie findet ĂĽberall Anwendung, wo D-LINK oder dessen autorisierte Servicepartner Garantiedienste gemĂ¤Ăź den Bestimmungen dieser eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie erbringen. Gleichwohl kann sich die VerfĂĽgbarkeit von Garantiediensten und die Bearbeitungszeit von Land zu Land unterscheiden und von Registrierungsanforderungen abhĂ¤ngig sein. EinschrĂ¤nkung der Garantie D-LINK gewĂ¤hrleistet, dass die nachstehend aufgefĂĽhrten Produkte bei gewĂ¶hnlicher Verwendung fĂĽr die unten angegebene Laufzeit der eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie (â€žGarantielaufzeitâ€ś) frei von wesentlichen Verarbeitungs- und Materialfehlern sind. Voraussetzung hierfĂĽr ist jedoch, dass das Produkt entsprechend dem Benutzerhandbuch und den weiteren Dokumentationen, die der Benutzer beim Kauf (oder spĂ¤ter) erhalten hat, genutzt und gewartet wird. D-LINK garantiert nicht, dass die Produkte stĂ¶rungs- oder fehlerfrei arbeiteten oder dass alle MĂ¤ngel, Fehler, Defekte oder KompatibilitĂ¤tsstĂ¶rungen beseitigt werden kĂ¶nnen. Diese Garantie gilt nicht fĂĽr Probleme wegen: (a) unerlaubter VerĂ¤nderung oder HinzufĂĽgung, (b) FahrlĂ¤ssigkeit, Missbrauch oder Zweckentfremdung, einschlieĂźlich des Gebrauchs des Produkts entgegen den Spezifikationen oder den durch Schnittstellen gegebenen Vorgaben, (c) fehlerhafter Bedienung, (d) Versagen von Produkten oder Diensten, die nicht von D-LINK stammen oder nicht Gegenstand einer zum maĂźgeblichen Zeitpunkt gĂĽltigen Garantie- oder Wartungsvereinbarung sind, (e) Fehlgebrauch oder fehlerhafter Lagerung oder (f) Feuer, Wasser, hĂ¶herer Gewalt oder anderer Katastrophen. Diese Garantie gilt ebenfalls nicht fĂĽr Produkte, bei denen eine D-LINK-Seriennummer entfernt oder auf sonstige Weise unkenntlich gemacht wurde. D-LINK STEHT NICHT FĂśR SCHĂ„DEN EIN, DIE DADURCH ENTSTEHEN, DASS DIE ANLEITUNG FĂśR DAS D-LINK HARDWARE-PRODUKT NICHT BEFOLGT WIRD. Laufzeit der eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie Die Laufzeit der eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie beginnt mit dem Zeitpunkt, zu dem das Produkt von D-LINK gekauft wurde. Als Nachweis fĂĽr den Zeitpunkt des Kaufs gilt der datierte Kauf- oder Lieferbeleg. Es kann von Ihnen verlangt werden, dass Sie zur Inanspruchnahme von Garantiediensten den Kauf des Produkts nachweisen. Wenn Ihre Hardware-Produkte der Marke D-LINK innerhalb der Laufzeit der eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie eine Reparatur benĂ¶tigen, so sind Sie berechtigt, gemĂ¤Ăź den Bedingungen dieser eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie Garantiedienste in Anspruch zu nehmen.
Diese eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie gilt nur fĂĽr denjenigen, der das D-LINK Hardware-Produkt ursprĂĽnglich als originĂ¤rer Endbenutzer gekauft hat. Sie ist nicht auf Dritte ĂĽbertragbar, die das D-LINK-Produkt von dem ursprĂĽnglichen originĂ¤ren Endbenutzer erworben haben. Produkttyp GewĂ¤hrleistungslaufzeit Verwaltete Switches (d. h. Switches mit eingebauten SNMP-Agents) (einschlieĂźlich FĂĽnf (5) Jahre
Modulen und Verwaltungssoftware)
Alle weiteren Produkte
Zwei (2) Jahre
Ersatzteile (z.B. externe Netzteile, LĂĽfter)
Ein (1) Jahr
Die oben aufgefĂĽhrten Garantielaufzeiten gelten fĂĽr alle D-LINK-Produkte, die in europĂ¤ischen Staaten ab dem 1. Januar 2004 von D- LINK oder einem autorisierten FachhĂ¤ndler oder Distributor verkauft werden. Alle vor dem 1. Januar 2004 von D-LINK oder einem autorisierten VertragshĂ¤ndler oder Distributor verkauften Produkte haben eine GewĂ¤hrleistung von 5 Jahren; ausgenommen sind Netzteile, LĂĽfter und ZubehĂ¶r, diese haben eine Garantie von 2 Jahren.
Die durch diesen Garantieschein festgelegte Garantielaufzeit tritt an die Stelle der im Benutzerhandbuch oder im Kaufvertrag fĂĽr das jeweilige Produkt angegebenen Laufzeit. Sollten Sie das betreffende D-LINK-Produkt als Verbraucher erworben haben, so sei klargestellt, dass Ihre gesetzlichen Rechte hiervon unberĂĽhrt bleiben. Leistungsumfang der eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie Bei Auftreten eines Produktfehlers besteht die einzige Verpflichtung von D-LINK darin, dem ursprĂĽnglichen KĂ¤ufer das defekte Produkt kostenlos zu reparieren oder es auszutauschen. Voraussetzung hierfĂĽr ist, dass das Produkt wĂ¤hrend der Garantielaufzeit einem autorisierten D-LINK-Servicecenter ĂĽbergeben wird. Reparatur oder Austausch werden von D-LINK durch ein autorisiertes D-LINK- Servicecenter durchgefĂĽhrt. Bauteile oder Hardware-Produkte, die gemĂ¤Ăź dieser eingeschrĂ¤nkten Garantie entfernt werden, gehen in das Eigentum von D-LINK ĂĽber. Die verbliebene eingeschrĂ¤nkte Garantie des entfernten Teils oder Produkts wird auf das Ersatzteil oder - produkt ĂĽbertragen. Das Austauschprodukt muss weder neu sein noch dem defekten Produkt ganz oder in Teilen entsprechen. D-LINK darf dieses nach eigenem Ermessen gegen ein entsprechendes wiederaufbereitetes Produkt austauschen, welches dem defekten Produkt im Wesentlichen entspricht (oder hĂ¶herwertig ist). D-LINK kann verlangen, dass der Kauf des Produkts nachgewiesen wird. DIE VORSTEHENDE GARANTIE WURDE IN DIE DEUTSCHE SPRACHE AUS DEM ENGLISCHEN ĂśBERSETZT. BEI ABWEICHUNGEN ZWISCHEN DER ENGLISCHEN VERSION UND DER DEUTSCHEN ĂśBERSETZUNG GELTEN DIE BESTIMMUNGEN DER ENGLISCHEN VERSION. Garantiegeber D-Link (Europe) Ltd. 4th Floor, Merit House Edgware Road Colindale London NW9 5 AB Vereinigtes KĂ¶nigreich Telefon: +44-020-8731-5555 Fax: +44-020-8731-5511 www.dlink.com
Il periodo di garanzia qui menzionato sostituisce qualsiasi altro periodo di garanzia definito nel manuale dâ€™uso o nel contratto di acquisto del prodotto. Se avete acquistato un prodotto DLINK in qualitĂ di consumatore i Vostri diritti rimangono invariati. Prestazioni della Garanzia limitata Qualora comparisse un difetto o una non conformitĂ , D-LINK avrĂ lâ€™unico obbligo di riparare o sostituire il prodotto non conforme senza alcun costo per lâ€™acquirente a condizione che il prodotto venga restituito a un Centro di Assistenza autorizzato D-LINK entro il periodo di garanzia. La riparazione o la sostituzione verranno eseguite da D-LINK presso un Centro di Assistenza autorizzato D-LINK. Tutti i componenti o i prodotti hardware rimossi conformemente ai termini e alle condizioni della presente garanzia divengono di proprietĂ di D- LINK. Il pezzo o il prodotto in sostituzione beneficerĂ della garanzia per il tempo residuo della parte o del prodotto originale. Il prodotto in sostituzione non deve necessariamente essere nuovo o di identica fattura, modello o composizione; D-LINK puĂ˛ a sua discrezione sostituire il prodotto non conforme (o qualsiasi parte di esso) con un prodotto che risulti essere equivalente (o di valore superiore) al prodotto non conforme. D-LINK puĂ˛ richiedere che venga esibita la prova di acquisto. Garante D-Link (Europe) Ltd. 4th Floor, Merit House Edgware Road Colindale Londra NW9 5 AB Regno Unito Telefono: +44-020-8731-5555 Fax: +44-020-8731-5511 www.dlink.co.uk
U.S.A Norway Latin America
17595 Mt. Herrmann Street
Karihaugveien 89, 1086 Oslo
Isidora Goyeechea 2934 of 702, Las Condes
Fountain Valley, CA. 92708
Santiago, Chile S.A.
Canada Finland Brasil
2180 Winston Park Drive
Pakkalankuja 7A, 01510 Vantaa,
Av das Nacoes Unidas,
Oakville, Ontario, L6H 5W1
11857 - 14 - andar - cj 141/142
TEL: +358-9-2707 5080
FAX: + 358-9-2707 5081
Sao Paulo - SP - Brazil
TEL: +55 11 55039320
FAX: +55 11 55039322 Europe (U. K.)
C/Sabino De Arana,, 56 Bajos
4th Floor, Merit House
Edgware Road, Colindale
TEL: 34 93 4090770 South Africa
London NW9 5AB
FAX: 34 93 4910795
Einstein Park II, Block B
102-106 Witch-Hazel Avenue
FAX: 44-20-8731-5511 Singapore
1 International Business Park
Republic of South Africa
URL: www.dlink-intl.com Russia
Grafsky per., 14, floor 6
FAX: 49-6196-7799300 Australia
1 Giffnock Avenue,
North Ryde, NSW 2113
TEL: 7-095-744-0099 France
FAX: 7-095-744-0099 #350
Le Florilege #.2, Allee de la Fresnerie
78330 Fontenay le Fleury
URL: www.dlink.com.au China
No.202, C1 Building, Huitong Office Park,
FAX: 33-1-30238689 India
No.71, Jianguo Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing,
D-Link House, Kurla Bandra Complex Road,
Off CST Road, Santacruz (East), Mumbai -
TEL +86-10-58635800 Netherlands
Weena 290 India
3012 NJ Rotterdam
URL: www.dlink-benelux.com Middle East (Dubai)
P.O.Box: 500376, Office No. 103, Building 3
TEL: 886-2-2910-2626 Belgium
Dubai Internet City
Rue des Colonies 11
Dubai, United Arab Emirates