Organization of the Medical Institute.

The head of the medical institute carries the title of rector. He is
responsible for the administration and supervision of the Institute. His
responsibilities are shared with assistants who carry the titles of
pro-rectors. In many cases they are responsible for specific activities
within the institute; e.g., pro-rector for research, pro-rector for
academic work, or pro-rector for administration.

The major teaching and administrative unit of Russian medical institutes
is the faculty. A medical institute may have one or more faculties. Each
faculty is headed by a dean. The dean is responsible for the
administrative affairs of the faculty.

Several individual disciplines each organized as a department or chair,
constitute a faculty. Each chair has a head, usually a professor who
serves as the chairman.

Every medical institute may have from one to five faculties: therapy,
pediatrics, sanitation-hygiene, stomatology, pharmacy. In medical
institutes with faculties of therapy, pediatrics and sanitation-hygiene
all students have their preclinical subjects together and then pursue
specialized clinical training in one of the three faculties. About 70
per cent of Russian medical students study in faculties of therapy.

Medical students have an opportunity to become acquainted with research
in medical sciences through scientific circles. Most chairs in a medical
institute have a scientific circle for students interested in a specific
discipline. These circles represent an active program of organized
extra-curricular activity directed towards increasing the students'
interest in research.

Although students may participate in these circles beginning in the
first year, the heavy schedule of required courses causes most students
to postpone participation until their third year. Between 20 and 25 per
cent of medical students participate in the scientific circles. Between
1 and 2 per cent of the students in the scientific circles develop into
serious research workers. Some of the students who do outstanding
research are given the opportunity to go directly into post- graduate
courses in medical institutes or research institutes following